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World Cultures: New Encounters


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Ptolemaic Map
Ptolemy: Anient Greek astronomer. 3D spherical surface onto 2D. Change of representation of space/geography. Geographical/navigational. Symbolic 10 winds and Ptolemy and friends on map.
T-O Map
earth as circle of ocean. "t" represents christianity: 3 points touching africa/asia/europe. not geographical/navigational.
Waldenseemuller Map
first to use "america" as name for discovered land. "terra incognita" for unknown land, represented as empty space
Munster Map
first with north and south america. geographical imaginary
how europe imagined america and vice versa. a repository of knowledge. history of encounters documented. encouraged travel/discovery. a way of textualizing reality. practice of naming/renaming and organizing. center of map: way of seeing world, center of universe. columbus' first map: initial account of american coastline. maps orient symbolically, not just a way of getting from a to b. maps illuminate "geographical imaginary" (east and west fantasies). perspective: visual space = orderly, uniform way to map space.
"Amerigo Vespucci Discovers America"
interpretation of americas existing on previous notions. amerigo speaking to america. america naked, waiting to be discovered, a women (vulnerability). landscape filled with fantastical animals. cannibals in background.
"configurations of space"
the expansion of the spanish empire coincided with the historical moment in the west when christianity, after losing jerusalem as its religious center,created another from which the campaign of christianizing the world began.
understand cultures past and present. allows to tell history in more relatable way. executions by europeans also performance of power.
form of embodied knowledge. choreographies of meaning.
"script" conquistadors read when conquering a land/people
meaning making paradigm. structure social environments, behaviors, potential outcomes
tropes of empire: adam in a virgin land
gender logic - man conquers woman
tropes of empire: mapping terra incognita
hero/voyager maps land. primitive residences unaware of treasures. hero will take advantage of treasures because knows value
tropes of empire: animalization/naturalization
bestiary natures of americas. lack of proper dress, sexuality, savagery
center of the aztec empire, divided by causeways leading to the mainland, organized around the temple mayor
home of the nahua peoples: seven tribes lived in seven caves and migrated, creating the seven city-states, the mexica were the last to emigrate and when they arrived no land was left
based in pictorial tradition. include mexica pictograms, written nahuatl, spanish, latin. tradition of "tlacuilo" - painter of codices - survived initial conquest, into colonial period
precolombian codice: codice barbonicus
three sections. tonalmatl: 12 day-signs, 13 glyphs, 1 deity
codice colonial: codice florentino
12 books created under shagun 1540-1585. copy of original record of conversations/interviews with indigenous sources in tlatelolco, texcoco, tenochtitlan. primarily in nahuatl.
nahua creation myths
ideas of time joined with concepts of world, composition of universe, sense of what mission gods gave humans.
first creation myth
divine couple originated world and life, gave origin to 4 deities identified by color. created half sun, man and woman (cultivator/weaver), underworld, skies, water, other gods. happens outside of time. age of suns begin: 1st thru 5th.
5th aztec emperor. during his reign the aztec empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken and tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the aztec triple alliance
hernan cortes
spanish explorer that led to the fall of the aztec empire
native sold in to slavery by her family, served as translator for cortes
served as allies to hernan cortes and his fellow spanish conquistadors, were instrumental in the invasion of tenochtitlan
templo mayor
main temple in tenochtitlan
la noche triste
under attack, with food and water in short supply, cortes decided to break out of the city. ferocious fighting.
successor of moctezuma, emperor during cortes' invasion
flowery wars
battles fought between the aztec triple alliance and some of their enemies. instigated because of a great famine that ocurred during the reign of moctezuma that could only be assuaged through the means of human sacrifice which resulted in a treaty being signed to engage in ritual battles to provide fresh victims
aztec warrior training
at 15 men began intensive training and weapon handling. the more captives taken in the battle, the betters the warrior and more rewards
feast of flaying of men
warriors running through streets in human flesh

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