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History 1B Midterm


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Albigensian Crusade
• WHAT/WHO: A crusade against southern Frenchmen that was called by Pope Innocent III against the Cathar heresy. Northern French nobles supported it. [You could also mention St. Dominic…] • WHEN: 1208-1229 OR Thirteenth Century OR early 1200s • WHERE: Southern France • SIGNIFICANCE: The Albigensian Crusade allowed the king of France to consolidate his power in southern France, which had formerly been controlled by “heretic” nobles. This consolidation was an important aspect of building the French state.
WHAT: Clerical office is sold WHEN: Early 1000's WHERE: European Church SIGNIFICANCE: Corruption of church
WHAT: Clerical office is inherited WHEN: Early 1000's WHERE: European Church SIGNIFICANCE: Corruption of church
Pope Gregory VII
WHO: A clunaic monk who was proclaimed pope by citizens and clergy of Rome. Confronted secular authorities (Gregorian reform) and fought investiture. Excommunicates Henry IV and humbles him at Canossa. WHEN: Early 1000's WHERE: Rome SIGNIFICANCE: Revealed that the emperor was supreme head of Christian people, responsible only to God.
WHAT: Shorten time in purgatory, one of the rewards for going on a crusade WHEN: Early 1000's SIGNIFICANCE: Incentive for crusaders
WHO: Muslim sultan who recaptures Jerusalem WHEN: Late 1100's WHERE: Jersualem SIGNIFICANCE: Threatened to eliminate the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem entirely.
Cathar heretics
WHO: Religious sect that believed that man's purpose on Earth was to transcend matter. WHEN: 11th or 12th century WHERE: Town of Albi in Languedoc, France SIGNIFICANCE: A strong organization of heretics during this time that threatened the Church.
Capetian dynasty
WHAT: French dynasty WHEN: Late 900's to early 1300's WHERE: France SIGNIFICANCE: Show how France is slowly assembled through little conquest, enjoying wealth of Island of France, procreating sons continuously, and inheriting Charlemagne's propaganda.
Senechals and Bailiffs
WHAT: A royal officer in charge of justice and control of administration in southern provinces WHEN: ??? WHERE: France SIGNIFICANCE: Nobles finds employment in council and courts. Safer than giving land to vassals. Can be fired if disloyal.
Plantagenet dynasty
WHAT: English dynasty WHEN: mid-1100's to mid-1400's WHERE: England SIGNIFICANCE: â—‹ Uniformity is imposed (language, legal system) â—‹ Inherits Danish taxation â—‹ English wool trade is rich and easily taxed â—‹ Creates salaried officials
Sheriffs and reeves
WHAT: royal official whose responsibility was to keep the peace throughout the shire WHEN: mid-1100's and mid-1400's WHERE: England SIGNIFICANCE: Nobles finds employment in council and courts. Safer than giving land to vassals. Can be fired if disloyal.
Francis of Assisi
WHAT: â—‹ City dweller â—‹ Son of prosperous merchant â—‹ Young man about town and aspiring soldier â—‹ Wants to follow Jesus' path, preaches, gains followers â—‹ Marries "Lady Poverty" WHEN: late 1100's to early 1200's WHERE: western Europe? SIGNIFICANCE: leader of Franciscans
WHAT: followers of Francis of Assisi WHEN: est. 1208 WHERE: Western Europe?
WHAT: Friars preachers, followers of Saint Dominic, preached against Cathar heresy, Inquisitors, preachers, teachers, and theologians WHEN: est. 1216
Saint Dominic
WHAT: Leader of Dominicans WHEN: Late 1100's to early 1200's
Thomas Aquinas
WHAT: Author of wrote Summa Theologica ("Sum of Everything") WHEN: early 1100's to late 1200's SIGNIFICANCE: States that reason leads to faith, There is an answer for everything, foundation for medieval philosophy
WHAT: ○ Rural and southern ○ Small and isolated, encouraged pilgrimages § Wanted to get closer to different relics § Main sites: Jerusalem, James of Compostella (Spain), St. Peter (Rome) ○ Basilica = relics (proximity to divine) ○ Otherworldly, Apocalypse ○ Christ the Lord, judge ○ "I am the door" WHEN: 12th century
WHAT: ○ Urban and northern ○ Large and tall ○ Cathedral: seat of Bishop ○ This worldly, preaching ○ Human: Virgin Mary ○ Jesus, the man of sorrows § Crucifixion: central theme ○ "I am the light" WHEN: 13th century

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