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chapter 22- scientific revolution


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Begining of scientific revolution
mid 1500s
belief that the earth was the center of the universe
nicolaus copernicus
heliocentric theory-sun was the center of the universe, vs. aristotle's geometric belief that the earth was the center of the universe.
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer carefully recofded the movements of the plants for many years and produced accurate data based on his observations. Died in 1601.
Johannes Kepler
Brahe's assistant who, whe Brahe died in 1601, took over. Kepler confluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. Onve of these laws shoed that the planets revolved around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circels. Demonstrated mathematically that the plantets revolve around the sun.
Galileo Galilei
discovered the law of pendulum. Tested gravity, in 1610, he published a series of newsletters called Starry Messenger, which described his astonishing observations.
scientific method
logical procedure for gathering and testing idea
1. observation
2. collect data
3. hypothesis
4. test hypothesis
5. conclusion
Who helped to advance the new approach, the scientfic method?
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
Francis Bacon
english politician and writer
Rene descartes
developed analytical geometry, which linked algebra and geometry. Descartes relied on mathematics and logic, rather than experimentation. "I think therefore I am"
Isaac Newton
in 1687, hge published his ideas in a work called mathematical principles of natural philiosophy
Zacarias Janssen
dutch maker of eyeglasses
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1670s- used a microscope to observe bacteria swimming in tooth scrapings.
Evangelista Torricelli
developed the first mercury barometer-tool for measuring atmostpheric pressure and prdicting weather.
Gabroe; Fahrenheit
dutch physicist made the first thermometer to use mercury in glass-showed water freezing at 32 degrees
Anders Celsius
swedish astronomeer who created a scale for mecury thermometer which showed freezing at 0degrees
greek physician- never dissected the body of a human being- studied th anatomy of pigs
Andreas Vesalius
Flemish physician who dissected human corpses and published his observations.
Willian Harvey
published "on the motion of the heart and blood in animals" which showed that the heart acted as a pump to cir culate blood throughout the body.
Edward Jenner
introduced a smallpox vaccine--used cowpox as the worlds first vaccination
Robert Boyle
considered the founder of modern chemistry- challeneged aristotles idea- boyle's law
Joseph Priestley
separated one pure gas for air in 1774
antoine lavoisier
perfomed similar experiments as priestley and named the newly discovered gas oxygen

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