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Chapter 15 Social Psychology


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the tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior
fundamental attribution error
the branch of psychology concerned with how others influence the way a person thinks, feels, and acts
social psychology
the full store of knowledge that people have about themselves
a state in which the sense of self is the object of attention
the cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self
self-concepts determined largely by social roles and personal relationships
interdependent self-construals
a view of the self as separate from others, emphasizing self-reliance and the pursuit of personal happiness
independent self-contruals
the evaluative aspect of self-concept
an internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection
the evaluation of our own actions, abilities, and beliefs by contrasting them with other people's
social comparison
the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors
self-serving bias
the evalutation of objects, events, or ideas
attitudes that influence our feelings and behavior at an unconscious level
implicit attitudes
the perceptual incongruity that occurs when there is a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior
cognitive dissonance
the active and conscious effort to change attitudes through the transformation of a message
a theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes
elaboration likelihood model
the facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others
nonverbal behavior
people's causal explanations for why events or actions occur
explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort
personal attributions
explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of other people
situational attributions
cognitive schemas that allow for easy and efficient organization of information about people based on their membership in certain groups
the observation that people may come to behave in ways that confirm their own or others' expectations
self-fulfilling prophecy
the affective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes
the inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership
the tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup
ingroup favoritism
when the mere presence of others enhances performance
social facilitation
the tendency for people to work less hard in a group than when working alone
social loafing
a phenomenon of low self-awareness, in which people lose their individuality and fail to attend to personal standards
expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior
social norms
the altering of one's opinions or behavior to match those of others or to match social norms
the tendency to agree to do things requested by others
the willingness to follow and order given by an authority
any behavior or action that involves the intention to harm someone else
the extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will act aggressively
frustration-aggression hypothesis
tending to benefit others
the providing of help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so
the tendency to be altruistic toward those who share a genetic bond
kin selection
the tendency to help another because the recipient may return the favor
reciprocal helping
the failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need
bystander intervention effect

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