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Final Test (u.s history)

Study Guide for U.S History


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11.7 Holocaust
Name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II.
11.8&11.9 Fidel Castro
A Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president, premier until his resignation from the office in February 2008.
11.2 Meat Inspection Act
Theodore Roosevelt and Congress expanded the power of government by passing several acts regulating meat inspection, food and drugs, and conversation of the environment.
11.2 Trust
A trust is a legal concept that allows one person to manage another person's property.
11.8&11.9 Joseph McCarthy
An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
11.4.6 Committee on Public Information
Provided propaganda to rally citizen support for all aspects of the war effort.
11.4 Wilson's Moral Diplomacy
Wilson's desire to lead by moral example and promote Moral Diplomacy found him deeply involved in Mexico's political affairs.
11.4 Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
The United States would increase its trade, American businesses would increase their profits, countries in Latin America would rise out of poverty and social disorder, and European nations would have no reason to intervene in the region.
11.7 Double V Campaign
In a 1942 letter to the Pittsburgh Courier, James G. Thompson called for a Double V Campaign to achieve two victories: over the Axis powers in World War II and over racial prejudice in the United States.
11.2 Social Gospel
A movement strove to improve conditions in cities according to the biblical ideals of charity and justice
11.1 Reconstruction
Rebuilding the nation after the war.
11.6 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Built hydroelectric plants and dams aimed at improving seven Southern states and attracting industry to the South.
11.2 Square Deal
"I shall see to it, that every man has a square deal, no less and no more", his reform programs became known as the Square Deal.
11.5 Sacco and Vanzetti
People who oppose all forms of government; discoverd that Sacco owned a gun similar to the murder weapon and that the bullets used in the murders matched those in Sacco's gun.
11.5 Return to Normalcy
A return to "normal" life after the war.
11.7 Lend Lease Act
The name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies.
11.1 Judiciary Act of 1789
A landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary.
11.8&11.9 NATO
In April 1949, both the public and congress agreed the agreement had been reached to created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization: a mutual defense alliance.
11.1 Jim Crow Laws
Segregation, or separation of the races, was different because laws enforced and perpetuated the discrimination known as Jim Crow laws.
11.8&11.9 Warren Court
A period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States that was marked by one of the starkest and most dramatic changes in judicial power and philosophy.
11.4 Yellow Journalists
Sensationalist reporting, in which writers often exaggerated or even made up stories to attract readers.
11.8&11.9 Berlin Wall
Stood as a visible symbol of the Cold War division between East and West.
11.5 Harlem Renaissance
In Harlem, African American created an environment that stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a sense of community and political organization.
11.4 US role in Panama Revolution and Panama Canal
United States and Great Britain had signed a treaty in which each nation had agreed not to build a canal without the other's participation. One through Nicaragua and Panama are two possible canal sites by offering to sell its rights and property in Panama to the United States.
11.7 Rationing
The giving out of scarce items on a limited basis.
11.10 Feminine Mystique
Many date the women's movement from the publication of Betty Friedan in 1963.
11.2 Collective Bargaining
The process whereby workers organize together to meet, converse, and compromise upon the work environment with their employers
11.7 Atomic Bomb
An explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
11.4 White Man's Burden
A poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling.
11.10 NOW
A British newsmagazine founded by entrepreneur Sir James Goldsmith.
11.6 Bonus Army
Wearing ragged military uniforms, they trudged along the highways or rode the rails, singing old war songs and reminiscing about army days.
11.8&11.9 Miranda Rights
Must be allowed acess to a lawyer and must be informed of his or her right to remain silent before being questioned by the police.
11.8&11.9 Cuban Missle Crisis
The most dramatic foreign policy episode Kennedy faced.
11.5 KKK
Some Southern opponents of Reconstruction organized secret societies to undermine Republican rule, the largest of these groups was the Ku Klux Klan.
11.7 Japanese Internement Camps
The forcible relocation and internment of approximately 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
11.11 Detente
A policy which attempts to relax or ease tensions between nations.
11.10 Roe v. Wade
One of the most important goals for many women activists was the repeal of laws against abortion.
11.4 USS Maine
one of the Navy's first armored battleships naval vessels with electrical lighting.
11.2 Sherman Anti Trust Act
It is illegal any "combination in the form of trust ... or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States."
11.4.6 Fourteen Points
Wilson's plan to Congress in January 1918.
11.7 Midway
The last American base in the North Pacific west of Hawaii.
11.5 Scopes Trial
The trial took place in the summer of 1925.
11.8&11.9 Vietnam
The easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Vietnam and neighboring Laos and Cambodia- a region known collectively as French Indochina.
11.5 NAACP
African American launched the Niagara Movement.
11.2 Muckrakers
The first people to articulate Progressive ideas was a group of crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption.
11.8&11.9 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Authorizing the president to "take all necesary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression".
11.4 Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy
The growing American involvement in foreign affairs caused Roosevelt to expand his "big stick" diplomacy.
11.8&11.9 Berlin Blockade
One of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
11.2 Progressives
Progressivism was not a tightly organized political movement with a specific set of reforms.
11.7 March on Washington
large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963, was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations, under the theme "jobs, justice, and peace".
11.2 Credit Moblier
A political faovr for Union Pacific Railroad while serving as Speaker of the House in the 1870s.
11.6 Goal of New Deal
To promot or implemented banking reform laws, emergency relief programs, work relief programs, agricultural programs, and industrial reform (the National Recovery Administration, NRA), and the end of the gold standard and Prohibition, union support, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) relief program, the Social Security Act, and programs to aid farmers, including tenant farmers and migrant workers
11.5 Quota Act 1921
An immigration quota that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910, according to United States Census figures.
11.10 ERA
A proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which was intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex.
11.1 Constitution
The Constitution is based on several principales that assure people's rights and provides for a balance among the different branches of government.
11.11 CREEP
The Committee to Re-elect the President, a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration.
11.6 Price Supports
Either a subsidy or a price control, both with the intended effect of keeping the market price of a good higher than the competitive equilibrium level.
11.4.6 Alien and Sedition Acts
The Federalists resented the harsh Republican criticism by using their majority in Congress to pass.
11.11 Watergate
A series of American political scandals.
11.6 Hoovervilles
Nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression.
11.1 Bill of Rights
It became part of the Constitution in 1791. The first 10 amendents protect basic liberties and rights that some Americans may take for granted - including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to a trial by jury.
11.6 Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Combated unemployment; created jobs throughout economy.
11.4.6 Lusitiania
A place where the British passenger liner entered the war zone.
11.2 The Jungle
This is american literature was written by Upton Sinclair.
11.5 Bootlegger
The illegal production and distribution of liquor.
11.1 Checks and Balances
The system in which each branch of government has the ability to limit the power of the other branches to prevent any from becoming too powerful.
11.4 Treaty of Paris
On December 10, 1898, the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris.
11.8&11.9 Warsaw Pact
An organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe which was established on May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland.
11.4.6 League of Nations
The creation of a "general association of nations".
11.6 Congress of Industrial Organizations
A federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
11.1 Amendments
A change to the Constitution to prevent frivolous changes.
11.6 Herbert Hoover approach to Great Depression
To combat rampant unemployment, the burden on municipal aid services, and remove people seen as usurpers of American jobs, the program was largely a forced migration of an estimated 500,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans to Mexico.
11.1 Republicanism
People who elect representatives and give them the responsibility to make laws and conduct government.
11.5 Kellogg Briand Pact
On August 27, 1928, the United States and 14 other nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
11.8&11.9 Immigration Act of 1965
Abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924.
11.2 Conservationism
Realizing that the nation's bountiful natural resources were being used up at an alarming rate.
11.5 Prohibition
To make illegal by an authority.
11.5 Dawes Plan
An attempt following World War I for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany.
11.5 Fordney McCumber Tariff
Aiding farmers to help manufacturers.
11.6 Buying on Margin
Many investors made only a small cash down payment as low as 10 percent of the price.
11.6 Dust Bowl
Name given to the area of the southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s.
11.2 Political Machines
An organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government.
11.5 A. Mitchell Palmer
The Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921.
11.8&11.9 Truman Doctrine
A set of principles of U.S. foreign policy declared by President Harry S. Truman in an address to Congress to request $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey, as well as authorization to send American economic and military advisers to the two countries.
11.5 Flapper
A "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to the new jazz music, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior.
During the late 1600s and 1700s in Europe, a period known as the age of Enlightenment, philosophers put forth the theory physical world and human nature operated in an orderly way according to natural laws.
11.7 A. Philip Randolph
The head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters- a major union for African American railroad workers.
11.6 6 causes of the great depression
The structural weaknesses and specific events that turned it into a major depression
11.4.6 Great Migration
Not only African Americans were not the only group but also over 100,000 Mexicans.
11.4 Teller Amendment
An amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 19, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message which placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba.
11.5 Teapot Dome Scandal
The Senate investigated what the newspapers named and Secretary Fall became the first cabinet officer in history to go to prison.
11.2 Gentlemen's Agreement
This agreement made Roosevelt the ability to regulate big business and continue the economic benefit of big businesss without having to sacrifice economic efficiency by breaking up the trusts.
11.7 Braceros
A temporary contract labor program initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico.
11.8&11.9 Medicare and Medicaid
They are health care reform had been a major issue since the days of Harry Truman.
11.8&11.9 Marshall Plan
In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program which would give European nations American aid to rebuild their economies.
11.5 Marcus Garvey
A dynamic black leader from Jamaica, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist, Pan-Africanist, and orator.
11.1 3 branches of government and their role
The Legislative Branch: Government cannot spend any money unless Congress appropriates or set aside, funds. Roles are to make the nation's laws and appropriates funds. The Executive Branch: Government includes the president, the vice president, and agencies. Roles are to play a number of different roles in government, each of which has specific powers and responsibilities which include the nation's chief executive, chief diplomat, commander in chief of the military, chief of state, and legislative leader.
11.2 John D. Rockefeller
An american industrialist and philanthropist.
11.4.6 Selective Service Act
Congress with Wilson's support created a new system which required all men between 21 and 30 to register for the draft.
11.7 Island Hopping
An important military strategy in the Pacific
11.7 Appeasement
Accepting demans in order to avoid conflict.
11.6 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Under Roosevelt's program, the government would pay farmers not to raise certain livestock, such as hogs, and not to grow certain crops, such as cotton, corn, wheat, and tobacco.
11.8&11.9 Bay of Pigs
The first crisis occurred in Cuba, only 90 miles (145 KM) from American shores.
11.2 Social Darwinism
Based on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection, states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving. Spencer and others who shared his views became known as Social darwinists, and their ideas were known as Social Darwinism.
11.2 Interstate Commerce Act
An early effort to regulate the railroad rates. the first federal law designed to regulate interstate commerce.
11.6 Deficit Spending
Government practice of spending borrowed money rather than raising taxes, usually an attempt to boost the economy.
11.2 Monopoly
Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company.
11.8&11.9 38th Parallel
A period of military conflict between North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea) regimes, with major hostilities lasting from June 25, 1950 until the armistice signed on July 27, 1953.
11.6 Social Security
Created unemployment system, disability insurance, old-age pension, and child welfare benefits.
11.2 Chinese Exclusion Act
This law barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens.
11.4 Spanish American War
In support of the Cuban rebellion and in retaliation for the loss of the USS Maine, the United States declared war on Spain.
11.2 Pure Food and Drug Act
A perference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration.
11.2 Nativist
A perference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration.
11.2 Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish immigrant who rose from bobbin boy in a textile factory to owner of a steel company in Pittsburgh.
11.4 Open Door Policy
A policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations' spheres of influence.
11.4.6 Zimmerman Note
British intelligence intercepted it, was leaked to American newspapers.
11.4.6 National War Labor Board
Maintained cooperation between industry management and labor unions; acted as mediator to prevent and quickly settle disputes.
11.4.6 Conscientious Objector
An individual who, on religious, moral or ethical grounds, refuses to participate as a combatant in war or, in some cases, to take any role that would support a combatant organization armed forces.
11.6 Collective Bargaining Rights
Not to be illegal for employers to discriminate, spy on, harass, or terminate the employment of workers because of their union membership or retaliate against them for engaging in organizing campaigns or other "concerted activities" to form "company unions", or to refuse to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees.
11.2 Americanization Movement
Causing someone to acquire American traits and characteristics.
11.5 Speakeasy
A place where alcoholic beverages are sold illegally.

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