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Midterm 3


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What does memory refer to?
Capasity to retain and retreive information, and the structure that account for this capacity
Source Amnesia
Not being able to seperate your orginial experience from what you added after the fact
Confusing an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or coming to believe something that never really happened
What four circumstances increase the chances of confabulation?
1.) You have thought about the imagined event many times

2) The image of the event contains a lot of details

3.) The event is easy to imagine

4.) You focus on your emotional reactions to the event rather than on what actually happened
Explicit Memory
Conscious, interntional recollection of an event or an item of information
The ability to retrieve and reproduce information encountered earlier - Essay and fill in the blank quizes
The ability to identify information you have previously observed, read or head about - True/false and multiple choice
Implicit Memory
Information encountered in the past affects our thoughts and actions even though we do not consciously or intentionally remember it
Read or listen to some information and then test you later to see whether the information affects your performance on another type of task -- Hearing the words define and defend, and then LATER asked to complete the stem def
Relearning method
Requires you to relearn a task that you have learned earlier
Convert information into a form that the brain can process
Store information so we can retain it over time
Recover the information after time
Sensory Register
The entry-way of memory. Has a number of seperate subsystems. Information remains for 2 seconds
Sort-term memory
Holds a limited amountof infomration for a brief period of time
Long-Term Memory
Longer storage of information - fews minutes to a decade
Parallel Distributed Processing
Contents of memory are connections among a huge number of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operating in parallet
Working Memory
Short term memory plus the mental processes that control the retrieval of the imformation from long-term memory depending on what task you are doing
Grouping small bits of information into larger units
Semantic Categories
Organizing long-term memory - Chair is put in the categpry of furniture
Procedural Memories
Memories of knowing how to do something - comb your hair, use a pencil
Declarative Memories
memories of knowing that something is true
Semantic Memories
Internal representations of the world, independent of any particular context...facts, rules and concepts
Episodic Memory
Internal reprentations of personally experienced events
Serial Position Effect
Recall will be best for items at the beginning of the list (primacy effect) and at the end (Receny effect)
Maintenance Rehearsal
Involves the tote repetition of the meterial
Elaborative rehearal
Involves associating new items of infomration with meterial that has already been stored of with other new facts
Deep Processing
Recognizing patterns and assign labels, anaylyzing
Formal Stategies and tricks for encoding, storing and retaining information
Decay Theory
Memory traces fade with time when they are not accessed now and then
New information can wipe out old information
Retroactive Interference
Forgetting that occurs when when recently learned material interferes wil the ability to remember similar material stored previously
Proactive Interference
Forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interfears with learning new material
Retreival Cues
Information that helps us remember
Cue-dependent forgetting
Lacking retrieval cues
State-dependent memory
Best remember something when you're in teh same mental or physical state as you were when it happened
The involuntary oushing og threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious
Childhood amnesia
Can't remember anything before 3 or 4
A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties
A representation or most commonplace example of the concept - goldren retreiver is more prototypical than a chihauhua
Units of meanings that are made up of concepts and that express a unitary idea - Border Collies are smart
Cognitive Schemeas
Mental Models of aspects of the world
Mental images
PIctures in the mind's eye
Subconscious Processes
Mental processes occuring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary
Nonconscious Processes
Mental processes occuring outside of an not available to conscious awareness (hunches)
Implicit Learning
Learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned
Purposeful mental activity that involves operating on information in order to reach conclusions
A set of procedures guaranteed to prduce a soultion even if you do not know how it works - recipes
Deduction Reasoning
A form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises - if the premises are true, the conclusion must be...All humans are mortal, and I am human...means I am mortal
Inductive Reasoning
A conclusion probably follows from certain propositions or premises - if you get good food at one place many times, you probably will again
A rule of thumb that suggests a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution (In hearts, getting rid of the high cards first)
Dialectical Reasoning
The process of comparing and evaliating opposing points of view in order to resolve differences
Availability Heuristic
The tendency to judge the probablity of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
Avoiding Loss
People try to minimize ricks and losses when making decisions
Mental Set
A tendency to try to solve new problems by using the same heuristics, strategies, and rules that worked in the past on similar problems
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known; I knew it along bias
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief
Cognitive Dissonance
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistant
Postdecision Dissonance
Tension that occurs when you believe you may have made a bad decision
Justification of Effort
The tendency of individuals to increase their liking for something that they have worked hard for or suffered to attain
An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposelly or adapt to changes
Factor Analysis
A statistical analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores
G factor
A general ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
A measure of intelligence now derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests
Measurement of mental abilities, traits and processes
Stereotype Threat
A burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance due to negative stereotypes about his or her groups ability (if someone thinks that they are part of a group that will do poorly, they really do do poorly)
Componential Intelligence
Informational stategies you use when thinking about a problem - comparing, analyzing and evaluation
The knowledge or awareness of one's own cognitive processes
Experiential Intelligence
Creativity in transforming skills to new situations
Contextual Intelligence
Practical application of intelligence, requires that people take into account the different contexts in which they find themselves -adapt to new situations
Tacit Knowledge
Stategies for success that are not formally taught but must be inferred
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others
A statisitical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group
Reduced IQ can be attributed to?
Poor Prenatal Care
Exposure to toxins like lead
Stressful family circumstances
Cognitive Ethology
The study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals - shown evidence that animals can anticipate future events, une numbers to labal quantities, coordinate activities with other animals
The tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to non-human beings
The tendency to thinking that human beings have nothing in common with other animals
The awareness of oneself and the environment
Biological Rhythm
A periodic regular fluctualation in a biolgoical system
Generated from within rather than by external cues
Infradian Rhythms
Period longer than 24 hours - bird migration, or human menstrual cycle
Circadian Rhythms
24 hour long period, like sleep
Ultradian Rhythms
Periods shorter than 24 hours - 90 REM Cycle
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
An area of the brain (hypothalamus)containing a bioglogical clock
A hormone Secreted by the pineal gland, involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms
Internal Desynchronization
A state in which biological rhythms are not in phase with one another - jet lag
Seasonal Affective Disorder
A controversial disorder in which aperson experiences depresion during the winter and an improvement of mood in the spring
Sleep Apnea
Breathing periodically stops for a few moments
person subject to irresustible and unpredictable daytime sleepiness or sleep
Sleep periods characterized by eye movements, loss of muscle tone, and dreaming
Sleep Spindles
Short burts of rapid, high peaking waves in stage 2 sleep
Delta Waves
Very slow waves with very high peaks in stage 3 sleep
Stage 4 sleep
Deepest sleep, many delta waves
Lucid Dreams
People know they are dreaming and feel as though they are conscious
Manifest Content
What we experience and remember from dreamas
Latent content
hidden, symbolic and unconscious wishes
A procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, throughts, feelings of behavior of the subject
Activation-Synthesis Theory
The theory that dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpreation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain (Pons)
Rules of hypnosis
*They cannot be forced to do things against their will
*Feats have to be able to be performed by motivated unhynotized people
*Does not increase the accuracy of memory
*Depends on how hypnotizable the person is
*Does not produce a literal reexperiencing of long-ago events
*Can be used to fix health problems
A split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of others (Ernest Hilgard)
Socio-Cognitive Theories
Effects of hypnosis result from an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist, and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject
Psychoactive Drugs
Alter Perception, mood, thinking, memory, or behavior by changing the body's biochemistry
Speed up activity in the Central Nervous system - Cocaine, caffeine
Slows down activity in the Central Nervous System - Alcohol, tranquilzers

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