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IED concepts for cert exam (Globalization)


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Stiglitz (2002)
Pros: Landmines treaties, HIPc, growth in China
Cons: wealth inequality, poverty in Russia, West driven for own benefit (terms of trade, intellectual property, subsidies), replaces old dictators with transnational dictators
Trade liberalization in industrialized countries was protected and nurtured
Stiglitz (2002)
SAPs made things worse
Exacerbated crisis in Thailand, Indonesia
Free-market policies in LA one or two success (Chile)
Reforms: ABBBCRS
acceptance of dangers of free mkt,
bailouts (fewer), bankruptcy reform, better banking reg
crisis response, risk mgt improvement, better disclosure stds
safety nets
core mandate
Stiglitz (2002)
On WB:
Governance doesn’t represent people or lenders
(Taxation without representation)
Jobs for exports
Competition/Enterprise creation (not privatization)
Debt forgiveness
Efficient allocation of investment
Tech base (not just UPE)
Selective lending (not conditionality)
Stiglitz (2002)
Forum, not policy setter
Intellectual property rights balance (ex. AIDS drugs)
Stiglitz (2002)
Institutional reform:
More than one market model (US v. Sweden, ex)
Gov’t and markets both have imperfections
Need for international public institutions
Environmental, Health, Humanitarian
Transparency/Voting of WB,IMF
World Bank strengths (WB web site)
Largest (or one of) funder of education, HIV/AIDS prevention, biodiversity
HIPC 1996
Support governance & fight corruption
More in partnership
Water, electricity and transport to poor
Increased involvement by civil society orgs
Help in post conflict situations
World Bank weaknesses, critique
Meltzer Report, Easterly book
Self evaluate projects (avg rating of 5 on 1 to 10 scale)
Goals in essential conflict: bank v. humanitarian (privatization and market reform v. poverty)
Held (1999)
Globalization Conceptions:
Shared social space created by econ/tech
Political fatalism
Limits to national politics
Seek to create anal framework
Held (1999)
Theories of globalization
Hyperglobalists (Ohmae)
People everywhere subject to disciplines of global marketplace
Sceptic (Hirst & Thompson, 1996)
Globalization is myth: market segmented into 3 regional blocs (Europe, Asia-Pacific, North America
Transformationalists (Giddens, 1990; Rosenau)
Profound and uncertain change
Consider: concept, cause, socio-econ effect, power/gov implications, historical trajectory
Held (1999)
privileges economic, neoliberal celebrates single borderless global market, national as impossible, increasingly powerful local and regional governance
New forms of social organization
Diffusion of authority
New global division of labor replaces core-periph with more complex
Neo-liberals say everyone has comp adv in something
Traditional social protection looking difficult to sustain
Knowledge workers
Decline of nation state, power challenged
New regional, global forms of governance
Held (1999) Skeptics
World flows of trade are not unprecedented, rather heightened internationalization
Integration is less standard then Gold Standard
Globalization and regionalization are contradictory
Nations are architects of world trade
Has increased wealth inequities
Inequities and hierarchy is leading to fundamentalism, nationalism
Multinationals are mostly homebodies to home states/regions
Mtnance of world order remains province of West (and to their interests)
Globalization myth used by neo-libs to their advantage
Held (1999) Transformationalists
Historically unprecedented – social, econ, pol; blurring external/internal, national/domestic
Not sure where leading (in contrast to hyperglobalists/Skeptics) not evidence for convergence
North-South divisions have become transformed to social divides, concentric circles:
Elites, contented, marginalized
Interaction of national policy, governance and international law (vis a vis WTO, Eu, ex)
Sovereignty is a bargaining resource
Held (1999)
Variables for comparison:
Held (1999)Concept
Skeptics and hyperglobalists: there is an end state to which we compare (assumes linear)
Socio-historical: multidimensional not quantitative, highly differentiated
Held (1999) Causation
Uni or multidimensional? World systems: diffusion of Western ideas
For transformationalists, something new
Held (1999) Periodization
It depends on how you bracket time frame (ex. trade netwks of middle ages support long trajectory)
Held (1999) Trajectory
Hyperglobalist - linear and secular
Skeptic - historical and recurrent features
Transformationalist - historical upheavals, conflictive, fragment/unify, cooperation/conflict, etc
Held (1999) Definition of Globalization
widening/deepening of interglobal connectedness
Located on local/national/regional continuum
Spatial-temporal process
Intensification, speeding up, extensity, intensity, velocity, impact propensity (hardest to operationalize)
Interegional flows of activity, interaction and power which create social and physical infrastructures
Held (1999)
Types of impact:
Held (1999)
Dimensions of impact:
Infrastructure (facilitate)
Institutionalization (normalizing)
Modes of interaction - (type: ex. Imperialistic, cooperative, etc. and instrument of power: economic, military)
Held (1999) Effects & Types of Globalization
Globalization has pressured gov'ts to decrease progressive spending and welfare progs, others not. Effects vary by country
Thick globalization: high intensity, velocity, impact
Expansive: low intensity, high velocity, impact
Diffused: high intensity, velocity, low impact
Thin: low intensity, high velocity, impact

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