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Anatomy Chapter 15


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the habenular nucleus and the pineal gland make up this.
superios colliculi
visual reflex center; help visually track moving objects and control reflexes such as turning the eyes and head in response to a visual stimulus.
nerve II: affects vision
primary olfactory
located in the temporal lobe; provides conscious awareness of smells.
the most inferior region of the diencephalon; it is the master control center of the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system; it regulates body temperature, controls emotional behavior, controls food intake, controls water intake, and regulates sleep-wake rhythms (circadian rhythms).
central white matter
composed of myelinated axons; lies deep to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex. Most of these axons are grouped into bundles called tracts.
falx cerebri
the largest of the 4 cranial dural septa; located in the midsagittal plane of the brain.
gnostic area
a functional region of the brain composed of regions of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes; provides comprehensive understanding of a current activity.
substantia nigra
helps to control the type of movement and the amount of movement. Parkinson's disease is result of a problem with this.
arachnoid villi
excess csf flows into this then drains into the dural venous sinuses.
occipital lobe
reponsible for processing incoming visual information, storing visual memories, and eye focusing movements
cerebral cortex
the outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum
the external layer made of grey matter; covers the surface of most of the adult brain (the cerebrum and the cerebellum).
tentorium cerebelli
named for the fact that if forms a dural "tent" over the cerebellum; separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
cranial dural septa
four layers of dura mater; these membraneous partitions separate specific parts of the brain and provide additional support to it. There are four cranial dural septa; They are the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, diaphragma sellae and falx cerebelli.
arachnoid mater
external to the pia mater, resembles a spider web, composed of a delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers.
nerve V; afftects the sensory of the nasal cavity, teeth, tongue and parts of the ear.
corpus callosum
the largest of 3 tracts of white matter; it connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum; it provides the main communication link between these two hemispheres.
third ventricle
a smaller ventricle located within the diencephalon; it drains into the cerebral aqueduct which then drains into the 4th ventricle.
pineal gland
an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melatonin which appears to help regulate day-night cycles known as the body's circadian rhythm.
amygdaloid body
connects to the hippocampus; participates in the expression of emotions especially fear.
fourth ventricle
located between the pons and the cerebellum; drains into the central canal of the spinal cord.
cerebral peduncle
carry out voluntary motion commands from the primary motor cortex in both hemispheres.
dura mater
the external tough, dense irregular connective tissue layer composed of two fibrous layers (meningeal layer and the periosteal layer). It is the strongest of the meninges.
the barrier that strictly regulates what substances can enter the interstitial fluid of the brain; keeps neurons in the brain from being exposed to drugs and wastes in the blood and varying levels of normal substances that could affect the brain (ie, hormones and ions). The bbb is missing in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus and the pineal gland.
helps maintain proper posture.
location of conscious thought processes and the original of all complex intellectual functions; it is formed by the telencephalon; it is identified as the two large hemispheres of the brain.
nerve XI; affects the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle
nerve VIII; affects hearing balance in the ears.
primary gustatory cortex
located in the insula and is involved in processing taste information.
cranial meninges
3 connective tissues layers that separate the soft tissue of the brain from the bones of the cranium (pia mater, arachnoid mater and dura mater).
the second larges part of the brain, and it develops from the metencephalon; coordinates and fine tunes skeletal muscle movements.
caudate nucleus
neurons in this nucleus help you to walk properly.
white matter
composed of myelinated axons; organized into 3 pairs of funiculi (posterior funiculis, lateral funiculis, and anterior funiculis).
central sulcus
divides the frontal and parietal lobes.
lateral ventricles
two ventricles located in the cerebrum that look like a ram's horns; they drain into the 3rd ventricle via a canal called the interventricular foramen; they are separated by a think partition called the septum pellucidum
lateral sulcus
separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobes (on the sides of the brain).
putamen and globus pallidus
together these two masses of gray matter form a larger body called the lentiform nucleus.
nerve IV; affects the eye movement (superior oblique muscle)
subdural space
an empty or potiential space between the arachnoid mater and the outer most meninge lay which is the pia mater.
gray matter
houses motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telondria and unmyelinated axons.
pia mater
the innermost of the cranial meninges. a thin layer of areolar connective tissue that tightly adheres to the brain.
a small lobe deep(inside) to the lateral sulcus; apparently involved in memory and interpretation of taste; can be seen by pulling aside the temporal bone; .
nerve X: a traveling sensory nerve
nerve I; affects smell
subarachnoid space
immediately under the arachnoid mater is this space; looks like a bunch of spider webs; houses cerebrospinal fluid.
frontal lobe
primarily concerned with voluntay motor functions, concentration, verbal communication, decision making, planning and personality.
inferior colliculi
auditory reflex centers; control reflexing turning of the head and eyes in the direction of sound. BANG!
a bunch of axons pulled together.
also derives from teh rhombencephalon and eventually forms the medula oblongata.
derives from the prosencephalon and eventually forms the thalamus, hypothalamus and the epithalamus.
part of the brainstem that forms part of the metencephalon; housed within these are sensory motor tracts that connect the brain and spinal cord.
arises from the prosencephalon and eventually forms the cerebrum.
arises from the rhombencephalon and eventually forms the pons and cerebellum.
motor speech area
once called the broca area; located in the left portion of the frontal lobe; responsible for controlling the muscular movements necessary for vocalization.
falx cerebelli
a vertical partition that divides the left and right cerebellar hemipheres.
diaphragma sellae
forms a "roof" over the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. a small opening allows for passage of a thin stalk called the infindubulum, that attaches the pituatary gland to the base of the hypothalamus.
The folds all over the brain
midbrain; the only vescicle that does not change into anything else
cerebral nuclei
irregular masses of gray matter buried deep(inside) withing the central white matter of the cerebrum.
the bumps all over the brain
nerve III: affects movement of the eye.
medulla oblongata
formed from the myelencephalon; all communication between the brain and spinal cord involves tracts that ascend and descend through here.
cerebrospinal fluid that is produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles; CSF is produced by secretion of a fluid from the ependymal cells that originates from the blood plasma;
longitudinal fissures
the gap/separation between the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
nerve VI; affects movement of the eye (lateral rectus eye muscle).
nerve VII; affects taste
tectal plate
also called the corpora quadrigemina; these nuclei are relay stations in the processing pathway of visual and auditory sensations.
essential in storing memories and forming long-term memory.
autonomic respirator centers
regulate the rate and depth of breathing (made up of the pneumotaxic center and the apneustic center).
nerve XII; controls the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles
primary motor cortex
also called the somatic motor area (somatic means body); located in the frontal lobe; neurons here control voluntary skeletal muscle activity.
parietal lobe
concerned with general sensory functions such as evaluating the shape and texture of objects, understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions.
nerve IX; affects touch and taste
cavities that drain into one another and into the spinal cord
arbor vitae
the white matter inside the cerebellum that resembles the branches of a tree.
connects the prosencephalon and the cerebellum to the spinal cord; made up of 3 regions, the mesencephalon, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
temporal lobe
involved with hearing(auditory) and smell(olfactory)
forebrain. Gives rise to the telencephalon which eventually forms the cerebrum.
sella turcica
houses the pituitary gland.

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