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Dental Science 1

Terms

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Cytology
The study of cells, their origin, structure, function, and pathology.
Abnormal
Deviating from the normal to average.
Periodontitis
Inflammation of tissue surrounding the tooth.
Chronic
Long duration: not acute
Vasoconstrictor
A drug that constricts or narrows the caliber of blood vessels.
Enamel
The surface of the crown that you see; the hardest material in the body.
Halitosis
Bad breath
Apicoectomy
The surgical removal of the apex of the tooth root.
Frenum
Tissue connection between lip and attached gingival-labial frenum; the lingual frenum attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
ANUG (Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Acute infection and ulceration of marginal and inter proximal gingival tissue..
Acute condition
A disease process of sudden onset which requires immediate treatment and has a short and relatively severe course.
Bur
A cutting instrument used by the dentist in preparing a tooth for restoration. Burs come in many shapes and sizes and of various materials.
Bacterial Plaque
Highly organized colony of microorganisms which forms on teeth and/or prosthesis in the oral cavity.
Sealant
Resin material placed in occlusal pits and fissures to seal surfaces and prevent decay.
Prophylaxis
The removal of calculus (tartar) and stains from the exposed and unexposed surfaces of the teeth by scaling and polishing.
Denture
An artificial substitute for missing natural teeth and adjacent structures.
Molar
One of the grinding teeth found in the posterior of the mouth (6yr 12 yr& wisdom teeth in laymans)
Free gingival
that part of the gingival which surrounds the neck of the tooth above the cervical line and is not attached to the tooth.
Leukocyte
white blood cell.
Diastema
An abnormal space between the proximal surfaces of two adjacent teeth in the same arch. (between 8&9 7,8,9, &10)
Quadrant
Four sections of mouth i.e upper right or lower left, etc.; tooth planning or restorative work often done by quadrant.
Cementum
A thin, bonelike tissue covering the roots of a tooth.
Esthetic
Pleasing to see; apart from practical function; are cosmetic dentistry.
Calculus
A hard tenacious material that forms on the surfaces of the crowns and roots of the teeth. (Mineralized plague) 72 hours or more and plague begins to change.
Opaque
X-ray term; radiation doesn't penetrate more dense materials; i.e amalgam restorations appear white on x-rays.
Dentition
Natural teeth in the dental arch. Natural teeth as considered collectively in the dental arch may be primary (decidous) secondary (permanent) or mixed.
Cervical line
the line at which the cementum meets the enamel on a tooth.
Oral Hygiene
The science of oral health and its preservation.
Malocclusion
Irregularities in the positioning and relationship of teeth. Any deviation from a normal occlusion
Apex
The end of the root of the tooth.
Attrition
Normal wearing away by friction. In dentistry it refers to wearing down the surfaces of the teeth by mastication of food.
Anesthesia
Loss of sensation.
Apical Foramen
The opening at the top of the root through which his blood and nerve supply enter and leave the tooth.
Edema
When tissue fluid collects in a large amount in one place in the body, there is a swelling known as edema.
DDS
Abbreviation for Doctor of Dental Surgery, a degree from a dental college that a dentist receives.
Cyst
A sac with a distinct wall, containing fluid or other material. It may be normal or a pathologic structure. (can only tell difference between cyst and abscess by biopsy)
Bifurcation
Division into two, referring to the roots of the tooth.
Periodontium
Supporting tissue around the teeth.
Local Anesthetic
A drug which when injected into the tissues and absorbed into a nerve will temporarily cause loss of feeling in the area supplied by that nerve. It is called local because the area so anesthetized is only a part of the patient's body.
Crossbite
A form of malocclusion when one or more of the mandibular teeth is in front of the opposing maxillary teeth when the jaws are shut.
Lateral
Position, to the side; anterior teeth positioned to either side of the central incisors.
Maxillae
The bones of the upper jaw
Allergy
The sensitivity of a person to a specific substance that, in turn, causes no reaction in a person who is not sensitive to it. Anything the body views as poison.
Cancer
A malignant tumor. Malignant means capable if causing death.
Dentin
Calcified hard tissue forming the bulk of the tooth.
Asepsis
Freedom from living germs of disease and decay.
Abrasion
Mechanical wearing down of the teeth. Often caused by toothbrush.
Fluoridation
The adjustment of the fluoride content of a water supply as an aid in decreasing the incidence of dental caries. the optimum content is one part fluoride per million of water (fluorosis cuased by too much fluoride)
Cast
A reproduction of all or part of a dental arch made by pouring a mix of plaster or artificial stone into an impression.
Ankylosis
Tooth attached to bone; usually primary molar; tooth won't exfoliate on its own.
Gingiva
The oral mucosa which surrounds the teeth and covers teh alveolar process
Bridge
A dental prosthesis, which replaced one or more missing teeth, being supported by and affixed to adjacent teeth.
Incisor
A tooth with an incisal (cutting) edge. (Lateral and Central)
Fibroma
Benign tumor of fibrous, connective tissue.
Rubber Dam
A thin sheet of rubber that is perforated in such a manner as to fit over a tooth or group of teeth preventing saliva from wetting that portion of the mouth exposed through the rubber.
Uvula
Soft tissue hanging down in back of mouth from soft palate.
Decalcification
Beginning process of decay; weakened enamel from repeated acid attacks. (Can be reversed)
Pericoronitis
Inflammation of tissue surrounding partially erupted teeth, usually 2nd or 3rd molars.
Oral Mucosa
The mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth.
Virulence
The relative infectiousness of a microorganism, or its ability to overcome the body defences of the host..
Hygienist (dental)
A person trained and licensed by the state in which he/she lives to practice dental prophylaxis under the directions of a licensed dentist (legally able to remove calculus)
Embrasure
Opening or space between adjacent teeth.
Arch (dental)
The curving structure formed by the teeth in their normal position. There are two dental arches: the maxillary arch and the mandibular arch.
Impaction
Confinement of a tooth in the jaw. May be complete or partial.
Radiograph
A film of internal structures of the body produces by the action of x-rays of a specifically sensitized film.
Pulp
the vital tissue within the tooth containing the nerve and blood vessels. Commonly called the nerve.
Exfoliate
Normal loss of primary teeth due to process of root structure resorption.
Bilateral
Affecting both sides
Lingual
Pertaining to the tongue , as a position toward the tongue. the lingual surface of a tooth is the surface that is close to the tongue.
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
Hypersensitive
Abnormally sensitive.
Radioluscent
X-ray term, appears darker (gray to black), indicates less density, i.e. abscess or decay.
Topical Anesthetic
A drug that is applied to the surface of tissues and produces the loss of feeling in that tissue area. It is used prior to the insertion of a hypodermic needle, preparatory to injections, to prevent pain.
Exodontics
The science and practice of removing teeth from the oral cavity.
Fistula
Abnormal tract from inner structure to outer surface; allows drainage of thus; indicates infection. (white head on gingival surfaces)
Mamelon
Rounded prominences on the incisal edge of newly erupted anterior teeth. (3 bumps on permanent teeth)
Occlusal
Chewing surface of posterior teeth.
Labial
Pertaining to the lips, as a position toward the lips. The labial surface of a tooth is that surface that is close to the lips. (Canine, central, lateral, all have labial surface)
Analgesic
A mild remedy for relieving pain, such as aspirin, Anacin, and Bufferin.
Hypoglossal
Beneath the tongue (floor to mouth)
Sterilization
The removal or destruction of all forms of life.
Subgingival
Below the gingival margin.
Anterior
Front or in the front or forward part of. Anterior teeth are the six front teeth in both upper and lower arches.
Oral Examination
those procedures performed by a dentist that aid in making diagnostic conclusions about the oral health of an individual patient.
Cuspid
A tooth having one cusp. (Canine tooth)
Gingival Sulcus
the space between the tooth and the gree gingival.
DMD
Abbreviation for Doctor of Dental Medicine, a degree granted by some dental colleges; similar to DDS
Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.
Recession
Gingival margin retreats, often due to incorrect brushing; also natural aging process.
Bicuspid (pre molar)
Bi means "two", cusp means a "prominent shape of a tooth", so a bicuspid is a tooth with two cusps, or rounded parts.
Biopsy (slice and dice)
Surgical removal of tissue for microscopic examination, primarily for the purpose of diagnosing the possibility of benign or malignant neoplasms(tumors)
Papilla(e)
Interdental gingival tissue peak between adjacent teeth.
Operatory
A room in which dental treatment is performed.
Fluoride, topical
The direct application of a solution of fluoride, to the crowns of the teeth as a measure of help prevent the incidence of dental caries. Application is recommended on a routine basis through childhood and adolescence.
Benign Neoplasma (tumor)
Refers to tumor which is not malignant and will not kill.
Cardiopulmonary
Involving the heart and lungs.
Plaque
Soft, sticky film of bacteria and salivary components that constantly forms on tooth surfaces.
Edentulous
Without any teeth;completely lacking natural teeth.
Masitcation
Process of chewing
Unilateral
Occurring on one side.
Atypical
Not normal.
Cervical
Pertaining to the neck or cervix of a tooth.
Syncope
The act of fainting
Hemorrhage
Bleeding
Cusp
A pronounced elevation, or point, on or near the masticatory or occlusal surface of the tooth. (mountains of the tooth from canine back).
Hematoma
A blood tumor
Prognosis
A forecast as to the probable result of a disease or condition. Prediction of end or outcome.
Congenital
Any condition that was present when the person was born is referred to as congenital. not hereditary.
Frenectomy
Surgical detachment of a frenum from its attachment.
Ligament;Periodontal
Connective tissue that holds the tooth in its socket; periodontal membrane.
Trifurcation
Division into three parts or branches as three roots of a tooth (maxillary 1st & 2nd molar)
Amalgam
A metal alloy consisting of silver, tin, zinc, and copper combined with mercury and used as a restorative material in operative dentistry.
Hyperplasia
An abnormal increase in the number of cells in normal arrangement in tissue. The tissue thickens and enlarges (scar)
Periosteum
Lining around bones
Vestibule
Part of oral cavity between teeth and the lips or cheeks.
Occlusion
The relationship between the occlusal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when they are in contact.
Treatment plan
A series of operations or procedures that are proposed to treat the attainment of a given state of oral health.
Overhang
Excess filling material (cement) creating a poor margin - not flush with tooth surface; collects plaque, contributing to decay or periodontal disease in that area.
Dry Socket
Term indicting an extraction complications caused by disruption of the blood cloth; painful and requires further treatment.
Extraction
Surgical removal of teeth.
Abscess
Pus formation that is localized and limited in extent in any part of the body. Localized site of infection.
Exudate
Drainage of pus; indicates infection.
Jacket
A specific type of crown, generally fabricating of porcelain or acrylic resin, or combination of precious metal and porcelain or acrylic resin. Often called a "cap" by lay people.
Bruxism
The clenching or grinding of the teeth.
Anomaly
Not normal, usually developmental in origin.
Anesthetic
A drug or gas which takes away the sense of feeling.
Pharmacology
the science of drugs, their uses and actions.
Alveolar Process
The portion of each jaw in which the roots of the teeth are embedded. Bone that holds tooth in socket.
Diagnostic Services
Procedure such as radiographs, clinical examinations, biopsies, blood tests, study models, and vitality tests which assist the dentist in determining the disease conditions present and the treatment required.
Torus (tori)
Bony growth; mandibular - located along the lingual ridge of the lower jaw; palatal - located on the hard palate. (remove with mallet and chisel more traumatic to remove with high speed hand tool)
General Anesthetic
A drug or gas which produces unconsciousness (and thus the loss of feeling) either by inhalation (ether, chloroform) or by injection (sodium pentothal)
Resorption
Process of absorption of root structure, normal process for exfoliation of primary teeth.
Antiseptic
A substance that is used to stop, inhibit, or arrest the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill the bacteria.
Interproximal Space
Situated between the proximal surfaces of adjoining teeth of the same arch. (proximal where teeth touch)
Carious Lesion
An area of the tooth structure exhibiting caries as identified by clinical or radiographic examination. A cavity.
Trauma
A wound or injury
Mandible
The lower jaw
Foramen
A passage or opening usually in bone for the transmission of vessels and nerves.
Caries
Decay in the tooth structure.
Intraoral
Inside the mouth
Root Canal
The space within the roots of a tooth containing pulp tissue and connecting the pulp chamber with the apex of the tooth.
Crown and Bridge
That branch of dental science primarily concerned with the replacement of missing or naturally destroyed teeth or tooth structure by use of permanent, nonremovable dental prosthesis or restorations.
Cariogenic
Caries producing; conducive to caries.
Eruption
the act of breaking through or appearing. The movement of the tooth into its normal working position in the mouth.
Anatomy (dental)
The science of the structure of the external an dinternal forms of teeth and their surrounding structures.
Supragingival
Above gingival margin.
Buccal
Latin word for "cheek". in dentistry it means the side of the tooth that is next to the cheek.
Antibiotic
The product of an organism that may be used to destroy other disease-producing organisms. (Bacteria ONLY)
Deciduous
The primary dentition , or baby teeth.
Alloy
The product of the fusion of two or more metals.
Abutment
A tooth or teeth used to support and anchor a fixed or removable denture prosthesis.
Avulsed or Evulsed
Tooth torn from socket due to trauma.
Acrylic Resin (acrylic)
Plastic materials used in the fabrication of dentures and crowns and occasionally as a restorative filling material.
Hard Palate
The bony anterior part of the roof of the mouth.
Asymmetric
Unevenly arranged, not the same on both sides.
Articulate
to bring the teeth of one arch on proper position with the teeth of the opposing arch.

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