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Chapter 32

Brianna's guide, edited by me


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Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
When the sec of Interior insulted the Division of Forestry guy, Taft dismissed the forestry guy, a devout TR supporter, as insubordinate arousing hatred from progressives
Due to driving poor workers into alcoholism, these institutions were bitterly opposed by progressive reformers; about one of these bars for every 200 ppl
dry laws
Laws aimed at banning alcohol turned ½ of US's population into dry territory
EU immigrants who decried bloody capitalism who ranked high among the critics of injustice
Pioneering woman journalist who wrote factual expose on Standard Oil Co. in McClure's
La Follette
Governor of WI who emerged as most militant of progressive R leaders; perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities
Collier's, Cosmopolitan, Everybody's, McClure's
In alphabetical order, the 4 aggressive magazines that epitomized muckraking
Head of the fed Division of Forestry who broke important ground with the conservation movement
Rule of reason
Supreme Ct.'s decision that combinations that unreasonably restrained trade were illegal, thus ripping a huge hole in the govt antitrust net
19th Amendment
Gives women right to vote
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
Garment manufacturer in NY that caught fire and incinerated 146 female workers
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Headed by Frances E. Willard, this organization found friends w/ Anti-Saloon League & vehemently opposed alcohol
Desert Land Act 1877
Legislation allowing fed gov't to sell cheap arid land under the condition that purchaser would irrigate it within 3yrs
Austrian-born Milwaukeean who was elected to the House as a Socialist representative
Legislative process allowing voters to directly propose legislation themselves
Richard Ballinger
Secretary of the Interior who opened public lands in WY, MT, & AK to corporate development
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair's famed book showcases the horrors of the meat industry on the workingman
KS city where TR made a speech in 1910 about how the nat'l gov't should increase pwr
Aldrich-Vreeland Act 1908
Legislation that authorized nat'l banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
Hepburn act 1906
Legislation aimed at curbing RRs , severely restricting "free passes"; expanded Interstate Commerce Commission and the reach extended to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines
Galveston, TX
City that became the first to appoint expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs, leading the way for city-managers
Writer of Following the Color Line in which he highlighted the sorry subjugation of the 9mil blacks in US
Grp of aggressive magazines that began exposing the evils of US society; e.g. McClure's, Cosmopolitan; progressives who believed the cure for American democracy was more democracy
16th Amendment
Allows Congress to levy an income tax & tariff to be lowered which takes burden off the poor
Hiram Johnson
Governor of CA who was hella progressive and helped break the dominant rip of the Southern Pacific RR & set up a political machine of his own
Muller v. Oregon
1908 Supreme Ct. case that argued to legislate to protect women due to their peculiar structure
New Nationalism
TR's platform of increasing gov't pwr to remedy economic and social abuses; rejection of Taft's dollar diplomacy hich is less intervening and lets countries just run their own
Bureau of Corporations
In the Department of Commerce and Labor, this was meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era
Election process allowing voters to remove faithless elected officials
Writer of The Bitter Cry of Children in which he highlighted child labor abuses
1894 this main wrote Wealth against Commonwealth, a book attacking Standard Oil
Lochner v. New York
Supreme Ct. case in 1905 invalidating a 10hr workday for bakers
TR, a moderate (R) is seen as someone who topples trusts & monopolies, yet this reputation is largely overrated
Newlands Act 1902
Legislation authorizing US to collect money from the sale of public lands so the fed gov could use the funding for irrigation projects. (notice -- fed gov is irrigating land + developing it w/ money from settlers buying it)
17th Amendment
Allows for the direct election of senators
Square Deal
TR's program to control corporations, protect consumers, and conserve natural resources
Elkins Act 1903
RR legislation aimed at curbing the rebate; heavy fines imposed on both RRs and shippers
Shocked public w/ series in Cosmopolitan entitled "The Treason of the Senate," who he charged 75/90 senators didn't rep the ppl at all but RRs and trusts; fatally shot in 1911 by someone whose family he maligned
Manchurian Railway
Monopoly that Taft saw as a threat to the Open Door Policy w/ China
Pilgrim's Process
The book for which TR named the muckrakers because of a figure that got so caught up in raking manure
Reporter for NY Sun who wrote How the Other Half Lives, a damning indictment of the dirt, disease etc of NY slums; influenced TR
Department of Commerce and Labor
TR est. this dept armed with the Bureau of Corporations meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era
Patent medicines
Habit-forming drugs promising solns like growing your hair back; were predatory on the public & often contained much alcohol so ppl thought it was working; attacked by Collier's
Forest Reserve Act 1891
Legislation authorizing president to set aside public forests as nat'l parks ad other reserves; ended up protecting some 46 million acres
Standard Oil Company
Monopoly that Supreme Ct. ordered to be dissolved & est. rule of reason doctrine
Wealth against Commonwealth,
Henry Demarest Lloyd wrote a book attacking Standard Oil
Amendment XVII
Approved in 1913, this amendment allowed for the direct election of Senators
Food and Drug Administration
Federal commission that grew out of 1906 acts to regulate manufacture of food/drugs
Carey Act 1894
Legislation distributing fed land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled. (Notice -- states are doing the development of the land here)
Roosevelt Dam
Dam constructed on AZ's Salt River dedicated to TR
18th Amendment
Amendment banning alcohol distribution and consumption until it was repealed
Previously known for his involvement in the Pullman Strike, this Socialist nominee for president polled a surprising 420,000+ votes in the presidential election of 1908
Chief chemist of Dept of Agriculture who, w/ famed "Poison Squad," performed experiments on himself w/ patent medicines
Theory of the Leisure Class
Veblen attacked predatory wealth & consumption
"Uncle Joe" Cannon
Speaker of the House who progressives wanted to attack but Taft didn't support them
Millionaire's Club
What the Senate had been sneered by 1900 cos of how rich its members were
Tyson Chicken
One of the biggest suppliers of chicken, mostly for the S.W.; lobbied to change the standard for "fresh" to be stored above 22F/10days
Taft's Secretary of State that proposed a grp of US and foreign bankers by the RRs & hand them to China in a self-liquidating agreement, was subsequently laughed off
Patent medicines
Elixirs w/ US patent promising healing; often didn't work, mainly alcohol and tainted w/ Pb & Hg
Honduras, Haiti
Two countries in the Caribbean that Taft urged bankers to pump money into to keep out foreign funds
National Progressive Republican League
Third party est. in 1911 that had Sen. La Folette of WI as its leading candidate
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
Legislation also passed in 1906 preventing the adulteration and mislabeling of foods, pharmaceuticals, and specifically patent medicines.
Multimillionaire mine owner who refused to negotiate during a large strike in 1902;
Hetch Hetchy Controversy
Preservationists lost a major battle in 1913 when the fed gov't allowed San Francisco to build a dam on the high-walled valley of Hetch Hetchy in Yosemite
Bureau of Mines
Govt office est. by Taft to control mineral resources, rescue millions of acres of We. Coal lands, and protect water-power sites from private development
Later to become a Justice on Supreme Ct., this lawyer argued to est. laws to protect women due to their peculiar structure
Pres. That tries to smooth over "ugly American" stigma in Latin America by giving back the Panama Canal
Wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class in which he attacked predatory wealth & consumption
Bitter Cry of Children
Spargo highlighted child labor abuses
Repub that TR chose as his successor; was really fat;
18th Amendment
Prohibited alcohol, w/ abuse of alcohol led to spousal/child abuse & unemployment
Following the Color Line
Baker highlighted the sorry subjugation of the 9mil blacks in US
Movement growing out of the Populist/free silver movement reaction to the stranglehold of the trust; mostly middle class who were being pushed from above & below
New crusaders waging war on monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, & social justice;
A device that would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people, especially laws that had been pushed thru by big business
Democrat nominee for presidency in 1908 known as the "Boy Orator"; lost by a larger margin than in the previous election
Women suffrage
Movement receiving pwrful support from progressives in early 1900s; finally won w/ the nineteenth amendment in 1920
Charles Evans Hughes
R Governor of NY who investigated malpractices by gas and insurance companies
Frenzied Finance
Lawson made big in stock market then laid bare practices of his accomplices in Everybody's
Dollar diplomacy
Foreign policy of Taft that espoused protecting Wall Street investments abroad & using Wall Street dollars to uphold foreign policy
U.S. Steel
Company TR had supported that Taft wanted to press antitrust suits against, led partially to the destruction of their friendship
How the Other Half Lives
Riis wrote a damning indictment of the dirt, disease etc of NY slums; influenced TR
NY reporter who launched a series of articles in McClure's entitled "The Shame of the Cities," unmasking the corrupt alliance between big business & govt
Jane Addams
Urban pioneer who entered the fight to clean up corrupt city govts, other progressive reforms, etc. & urged women to do the same
Erratic speculator who made big in stock market who laid bare practices of his accomplices in "Frenzied Finance," in muckraker magazine Everybody's
Upton Sinclair
Socialist writer who later ran for governor of CA (but lost) is famed for his book The Jungle which showcases the horrors of the meat industry on the workingman
The Treason of the Senate
David Phillips Shocked public w/ series in Cosmopolitan -- charged 75/90 senators didn't rep the ppl at all but RRs and trusts;
Northern Securities Company
RR holding company headed by JP Morgan; became the first trust that TR busted; case got argued to Supreme Ct. where Northern Securities decision upheld TR's position
Payne-Aldrich Bill
Though Taft promised to lower the tariff, this tariff bill had so many amendments that it actually raised the tariff; caused uproar w/ progressives who felt betrayed
Progressive reformers
Leaders of progressive movement who were mainly middle-class men and women who felt squeezed from above & below.
Meat Inspection Act 1906
In response to The Jungle, TR induced Congress to pass this legislation decreeing that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be supervised by federal inspectors
Shame of the Cities
Steffans launched a series of articles unmasking the corrupt alliance in McClure's
Roosevelt Panic
Financial downturn in 1907 that featured runs on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculators; paved the way for fiscal reforms
Novelist who wrote The Financier and The Titan in which he battered promoters/profiteers

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