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copy deck
What are the main booksellers?
Book clubs
mail order
book superstores
online bookstores
independent bookstores
What are the 4 jobs of publishing houses
Acquisitions and development
copyediting, design, and production
marketing and sales
administration and business
Who is in charge of acquisitions and development?
acquisitions manager, deveopmental manager
Who is in charge of copyediting, design, and production
copy editor
design manager
What are the types of books?
trade books
professional books
mass-market paperbacks
religious books
reference books
university press books
Hardbound and paperback books aimed at general readers and sold at various retail outlets
Trade books
Target various occupational groups and are not intended fo the general consumer market
professional books
Give some examples of textbooks
el-hi, Vocational education, college texts
Books directly related to particular professions or trade
reference books
Give some examples of reference books
dictionary, encyclopedias, atlases
Scholarly works for small groups of readers intrested in specialized areas
University press books
What are the consequences of concentrated ownership in the book industry
Demise of independent publishers and booksellers
Emphasis on blockbusters and best-sellers
Avoidance of unconventional books
What was the function of newspapers and magazines pre-industrialization
political commentary
What was the function of newspapers and magazines post-industrialization
news and entertainment
What are the social backgrounds for the development of magazines as a mass medium
lower postage rate
rail transportation
innovation in production technology
successful general education
Characteristics of general-interest magazines in 1920s-1920s
Saturday Evening Post
Reader's Digest
Life (1936) and Look (1937)
How many American families read at least 1 magazine either through subscription or purchase on a regular basis?
more than 80%
How many American get a single-copy purchase of a magazine
How many Americans get a subscription to a magazine
Who are the heaviest readers of magazines
People of age 18-24 and over 65
What are the characteristics of people who read magazines
Income over 40,000 w/ a college education
What is the average amount of time spent reading magazines each day
46 minutes/day
The Social Impacts of magazines
Elite magazines shape public opinions by appealing to opinion leaders AND harmful influence on men and women's body perceptions
How did muckrakers pursue social reform?
They exposed slums, sweathshops, prostitution, political corruption, etc.
What are some examples of social reform that the muckrakers achieved
The Antitrust law, improved urban housing, the Pure food and drugs act, etc.
Why and when did the muckraking period end
The public eventually got tired of the nonstop attacks and it ended w/ the embarking of WWI
What was Ida M. Tarbell responsible for
He spent 5 years investigating and exposing the corruption that existed at Standard Oil Company
What was the result of success of television as a mass medium
It cut the advertising revenues of magazines
W/ the success of television, what happened to magazines
General interest magazines were the most adversely affected and many of them closed
After television, what happened to the majority of magazines
They are specialized
Give some examples of news magazines and what are they
Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report

Interpretive journalism
Types of magazines
consumer magazines
trade/business magazines
institutional magazines
online magazines
The number of new magazines appearing each year is
What types of magazines are the most rapidly increasing
sex and sports
How many magazines survive for more than 10 years
1 out of 5
What is the revenue source for advertising and subscription
What is mass media
Media that mediate one-to-many communication
Changing nature of the internet
Near monopoly of the Windows operating system
Server privatization
ISP: AT and T, AOL Time Warner
Web-browser software: Internet explorer
Promotion of sponsored Websites on search engines
Commercialization of URL regulation
What is the criteria to evaluate the credibility of information on the WWW
Quality of the content
Domain name: .edu,.org,.com
Interface design
commercial intention
contact information
others' recommendations
What is the displacement effect of the Internet
increased Internet use results in decreased physical activity, television watching, interaction w/ family, communication w/ family, loneliness and size of the social circle and increased time spent alone, important of TV as a source of entertainment and depression and loneliness. There is no impact on the importance of newspapers as a source of information
What are 2 ways to express freedom on the internet
gripe sites
Websites designed to counter or challenege another person or organization
gripe sites
Web journalis that comments on the news or other topics of interest
Development and control of the Internet
U.S. Military-National Science Foundation-ICANN-Commercial companies
A type of Web document that has links to other document
What is the digital divide
Growing contrast between "information haves" and "information Have-nots" based on their income, race, parental education, and geographical location
New York Weekly Journal (1733): John Peter Zenger
Peter Zenger was arrested for seditious libel in 1734 but eventually won the case based on the court decision that newspapers have the right to criticize government leaders as long as the reports are true
First newspaper published in the U.S.
Public Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick (1690)
First daily published in the U.S.
Boston News-Letter (1704)
First penny press newspaper
New York Sun (1833)
Developmental stages of newspapers in the US
Partisan Press and Commercial Press-Penny Press-Sensationalism and Objectivism-Interpretive journalism
Characteristics of penny press
Separation of the front page reporting from editoritals

Revenue source: advertising and sales

Assign reporters to cover a certain event or story

Heavy dependence on newsstand sales

Use of newswire services
Characteristics of the NY Times
Published by Adolph Ochs
Documented major issues and events
Differentiation using substantial news coverage and serious editorials
Started 6 cents and then lowered the price to 1 cent to appeal to middle class readers
What was the impact of the emergence of radio
Newspapers developed interpretive journalism
What was the impact of the emergence of network TV
newspapers switched their publication schedule from evening to morning and focused on local advertising markets
Impact of the emergence of cable TV
cutback on TV news staff
Development of network television news
NBC (1950s-60s): Camel News Caravan, Huntley-Brinkley Report
CBS (1970s): Evening News with Walter Cronkite, Dan Rather
ABC (1980s-90s): World News Tonight w Peter Jennings
Why did news magazines become popular
B/c of the 1975 limitation on non-news program during prime time and the cheap production cost
What network is 60 Minutes and 60 Minutes II on?
What network is 20/20 and Primtime Live on?
What network is Dateline on?
When was the Second World War
When is the Vietnam War
When is the Gulf War
When was Afghanistan
What is the social responsibility model of journalism
ownership: private
serve: public
priority: social progress
Government regulation: medium
American Broadcast media
Regard the mass media as the fourth estate that monitors the legislative, judiciary, and executive branches of the government
Current trends in the newspaper industry
Heavy dependence on wire services and feature syndicates
Increasing chain ownership
Cross-media ownership between local television stations and newspapers
Decline in newspaper readership: Joint Operating Agreement (JOA)
Influence of television news: Abundant use of graphics and photos and shorter story length. EX: USA TODAY
News values
human interest
Events just happened or related w/ current interest
events that occur close by to readers or vieweres
stories that involve 2 opposite parties
stories featuring powerful or influential people
extraordinary incidents of ordinary people
human interest
significant impacts on a majority of audiences
stories w/ a practical use
events happening outside the routine of daily life
events that seriously violate social norms
Inverted pyramid news format
1. Most important, newsworthy, or dramatic information, the 5 Ws
2. Key quotes, supporting evidence and details
3. Supporting facts and explanations
4. Supporting quotes and alternative explanations
5. Least important details
Composition of newspaper space
50-65% advertisements
20-30% wire services and feature syndicates
20-30% articles written by the staff reporter

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