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Nursing pharmacology: Anti-Parkinson Agents


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What is Parkinson's disease, or paralysis agitans, characterized by?
1. Muscle tremor
2. Rigidity
3. Lack of coordination.
What causes Parkinson's disease?
The cause of Parkinson's disease is not completely understood, but it is believed to be the result of an imbalance in the concentration of certain neurotransmitter in the brain.
1. Excessive amount of acetylcholine and
2. Deficiency of dopamine in the CNS.
Drug employed in the treatment of Parkinson's disease may be divide into two categories:
1. Those exerting dopaminergic action and
2. Those exerting anticholinergic action.
Name the two drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease.
1. Atropine
2. Levodopa
Classification of
Mechanism of
when levodopa enters the bloodstream, it is rapidly converted in the peripheral circulation to dopamine by the enzyme dopadecarboxylase and eventually increase the content of dopamine in the brain.
Side/ Adverse effects of
1. Nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension, dyskinesia, dystonia, somnolence, and gastrointestinal irritation.
2. In clients with history of cardiac disturbances arrhythmias may occurs.
3. Long term use may cause psychiatric disturbances or intensification of existing narrow-angle glaucoma.
4. "off-on" phenomenon.
Contraindication of
Clients using levodopa should not take multivitamin products containing pyridoxine (vitamin B6), but may take a pyridoxine-free product, such as Larobec.
Nursing Implications of
1. Should be administered with non protein food to reduce GI upset.
2. Doses more than 10 mg of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) will reverse the effect of levodopa.
3. May darken urine.
4. Monitor client for disturbances in thought processes or behavior.
Classification of
Belladonna derivative
Usage of
Treat Parkinson's Disease
adverse effect of
1. dry mouth
2. urinary retention
3. blurred vision.
Contraindications of
not used with patient with narrow-angle glaucoma and other disorders that are adversely affected by anticholinergic drugs.

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