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Chemistry Exam 1


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Cosmetic products to color, moisturize, and soften have a history dating back to
the ancient Egyptians
Nearly ______American teenagers visit tanning beds each year.
2.3 million
Across all age groups, males and females who have ever used tanning beds have a ___ higher risk of developing melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.
the deadliest form of skin cancer
first using a tanning bed before age 35 increases melanoma risk by ___
Completely filtered by stratospheric ozone layer
Produces tanning and sunburn, blocked by glass. All energy delivered to outer epidermis, forms melanin, a cancer precursor
Penetrates deeply into skin, causes damage associated with aging. Stronger link to skin cancer. Source of photosensitizer reactions (limes & drugs). Penetrates glass, consistent sunny or cloudy.
________ blockers (zinc oxide, titanium dioxide) block all light
_______ absorbers absorb UV only. Some convert UV-B to UV-A (salicylates, cinnaminates, para-aminobenzoate (PABA) & benzophenones).
There are ___ approved sunscreens in the U.S.
Midday summer sun exposure is believed to account for at least ___ of skin cancers worldwide
____ in U.S. will develop melanoma
1 in 74
____ die of skin cancer in the U.S. each year
___ of U.S. will develop skin cancer before death.
a D.C.-based non-profit lobbying group which calls itself “an advocate for consumers in the environmental/health/safety
Their study of 952 name-brand sunscreen products sold in the U.S. found that ___ offer inadequate protection from sunlight or contain ingredients with significant safety concerns
Nanoparticle ingredients aren’t absorbed into the skin, but can be inhaled from an ______.
aerosol spray
____ have been reported to be able to detect the scent of cancer on humans
most common form of skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
Average adult consumes _____ added sugar (90 g) daily.
22 teaspoons
Conventional incandescent light bulb technology brought to marketplace by ______ in ____
Thomas Edison, 1879
Less than ___ of the energy of conventional incandescent light bulbs goes into light
bulbs that use 80% less energy than conventional incandescent bulbs
compact flourescent lamps
CFL-style lamps first patented in the ____
shops in _____ can no longer buy new shipments of conventional bulbs after September 2009
US will follow conventional bulb ban in _____
______ are exempt from the ban
Halogen bulbs
concerns of CFLs
can trigger seizures, don't always fit in older light fixtures
CFL bulbs contain this harmful element
bulbs appearing nearly white, light intensity too low for many users, very efficient and long lifes
LED or Light-emitting diodes bulbs
The processes by which society modifies materials for use.⬝ A technology can be based on common knowledge and/or scientific knowledge
technologies from pre-history
fire, pottery, soap, fermentation
being found in rivers and streams
facilities running drug disposal days.
Drug stores and police/fire depts.
Ideally, how should out of date pharmacueticals be disposed of?
At home, how should out of date pharmaceuticals be disposed of?
Crushed, mixed with soil or kitty litter, and placed in garbage
Sources of Water
Rivers and streams, Lakes and ponds, Shallow and deep wells
biological contaminants of water
typhoid, cholera, diarrhea
_________ required to control bacterial waterborne diseases
Residual chlorine
leading cause of death in women
cardiovascular disease
death rate among women was ___ higher than for men
___________ prescribed less often for women than men
Aspirin and beta blockers
_______ increases risk of death in women.
_____ is less effective in women but it still works.
women who drink alcohol at least one day a week had about 35% lower risk of _________ than women who drank alcohol less than once a week
coronary heart disease
Recommendation now is ___ drink(s)/day for women, no more than __ for men
1, 2
In a remote village in Guatemala, the PUR treatments reduced the incidence of diarrheal disease more than __ during a 4-month testing period
what scientist suggested inventions based on published scientific results could improve human condition, in what year?
Roger Bacon, 1600 CE
who established the Royal Society of London to publish scientific results in what year?
Robert Boyle, 1650
A body of knowledge based on published repeatable experimental facts which are subject to inspection and verification⬝
used to organize and “explain” experimental facts; can extrapolate current information to unknown situations
a shrinking of the bones which sets in as we age
________ American women have osteoporosis now
20 million
more women die of _________ than breast cancer
hip fracture
Bone loss begins about _____
age 30
_______ along with ________ necessary for dense, strong bones
Calcium intake, vitamin D
sources of calcium
dairy, hard cheese, fish, sardines, dark green veggies
All elements composed of ultimate particles
atoms ( part of John Dalton's atomic theory)
_______ are the combining or separating of atoms
Chemical reactions (part of Dalton's atomic theory)
All atoms of a given element are alike and are different element to element
2 of Dalton's atomic theory
______ are composed of ________ having definite numbers of atoms.
Compounds, molecules
Who developed the periodic table?
Dimitri Mendelev
elements on the periodic table arranged by __________
increasing size (atomic weight)
Alkali metals
Alkaline earth metals
inert gases
vertical families based on ______
chemical properties
Most supplements tested contained _________, one of two drugs approved for obesity treatment
man that invented battery
Alessandro Volta
improved battery to higher voltages
Humphrey Davy
discovered that electric current could be caused by and could cause chemical changes
Michael Faraday
(1875) developed high-voltage discharge tube
William Crookes
features of metals
shiny, conduct electricity well, 80% of elements, ductile
features of non-metals
appear dull, brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity
linked to pulmonary disease most often infecting people with compromised immune systems
Mycobacterium avium
Bacteria grows best on _____, much less on ______.
plastic, metal
Current advice from CDC is to stay home until ______ after the fever breaks
one day
Recent studies reported Monday have concluded that the best sign of when a person is no longer contagious from swine flu is when the ______ stops
Swine flu is contagious for _______
a week
Ordinary seasonal flu is contagious for _______
1-2 days
_____ have died from swine flu
What scientist discovered the electron?
JJ Thomson
What scientist developed the x-ray?
Wilhelm Roentgen
What year was the Thomson Model developed?
___________scanning is a medical technique in which the body is x-rayed in a manner to produce a 3-dimensional image
Computerized tomography (CT)
What does CT scanning detect?
small tumors and other irregularities inside
The radiation exposure of one scan is equal to about ___________ .
30 chest X-rays
The CT scans would increase the risk such that _____ would die from cancer caused by the CT scans
1 in 50
The time between the scan and the appearance of cancer should be _______ in humans
20-30 years
Medical radiation doses are now regulated only for _________.
number of electrons in a neutral atom
atomic number
PolyEthylene Terphthalate
In 1995, about ____ of all plastic PolyEthylene Terphthalate bottles sold in U.S. were recycled
In ____, about ___ of all plastic PolyEthylene Terphthalate bottles sold in U.S. were recycled
2005, 23%
PET recycling is highest in states (11) with _______ or ________ _______ for _______
deposits, redemption values, bottles
Thomson Protege, nature of radioactivity using radon
Ernst Rutherford
Which three scientists conducted the Gold Foil Experiment and in what year?
Rutherford, Geiger, & Mardsen in 1911
What year was the nucleus discovered?
Who developed the Theory of Atomic Structure?
Bohr and Rutherford
comes in discrete, indivisible packets
Light emitted from excited atoms is in the form of a ____________
line spectrum
Color of light is related to its _______
Atoms emit energy as a result of ________ in atoms changing energy

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