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Animal Health 3b


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Vaccines where first seen where and when?
China, 6-11th century, spread to Asia, Africa, and Europe by late 1800's
What is passive immunization? What are some of its qualities?
Transfer of antibodies from a resistant to a susceptible animal (requires the donor to have been previously actively immunized). Offers immediate protection that wanes over time
Passive immunization is used primarily as what? Give two examples.
Used as antitoxins: TAT (tetanus antitoxin) and botulism
What are two natural ways to recieve passive immunity? (1 degree IgG)
1. colostrum
2. Intra-uterine AB transfer (transplacental)
What is active immunization? List some of its qualities.
Administer Ag to an animal so that it responds by mounting a protective immune response. Response is generally humoral (antibody production) and cellular.
The active immuninization requires a booster or exposure to natural infection to stimulate the anamnestic response for longer memory. True or false?
What are some qualities an ideal vaccine should have?
1. Provide long, strong immunity
2. Cheap
3. stable
4. Adaptable to mass vaccination
5. Able to stimulate an immune response distinguishable from that due to natural infection so that vaccination and eradication programs may go on simultaneously.
What is attenuation?
Reducing the virulence of an organism until, though still living, its not able to cause disease but will induce an immune response.
What is a method of attenuation?
Culturfe organisms under unfavorable or abnormal conditions: bactera=culture in unfavorable media or abnormal temps. Virus=grow in abnormal tissue cultures
Which is more common, killed or live viruses?
Killed vaccines are better or worse at stimulating immunogens than live?
What are ways to kill virus
heat, irradiation, UV, formalin, ethylene oxide gas
What is adjuvant used for?
to potentiate (increase) the immunogenicity of the killed vaccine. Increases macrophage and lymphocyte activity
What are examples of recombinant vaccines?
1. Subunit vaccines
2.Gene deleted
3. Vector vaccines
Describe Subunit vaccines
Composed of viral capsid or envelope protein. No viral replication in the host; therefore safe
Describe Gene deleted vaccines
Disease causing gene deleted from organism but its antigenicity remains
Describe Vector vaccines
Immunity stimulating genes are removed from virulent organism and introduced into a benign transport (vector) virus which is then used in vaccination
What are some methods of vaccine administration? 7
1. Subcutaneous (most comon in sm animals)
2. Intramuscular (common in lg animal)
3. Intranasal
4. Ocular
5. Intradermal
6. Oral
7. Intranasal, oral and ocular vaccines are often used when local immunity is important (IgA)
What are some factors affecting vaccine efficacy?
1. Stress
2. Maternal antibody
3. Age of vaccinate
4. Nutrition
5. Viral immunosuppression
6. Concurrent drug administration
7. Primary immunodeficiency
8. Concurrent disease
9. Vaccine interference
What can stress cause?
Decreased lymkphocyte activity (B &T cells). Also lymphatic organ atrophy.
What interference do maternal antibodies cause?
1. interferes w/neonatal ability to mount its own immune response
What is affect of age of vaccinate?
Both neonate and old animals unable to mount long, strong response
How does nutrition affect vaccine?
1. stress of mainutrition
2. vitamins A,B,E; Se (deficiencies lead to decreased antibody production)
What are some drugs that affect the vaccinate?
1. Steroids: decreases WBC and impairs T cell function
2. Anti-cancer drugs
3. Some antibiotics
What are some diseases that affect vaccines?
1. Hypo and hyperthyroidism
2. Diabetes
3. Demodectic mange
4. Ovarian and testicular tumors
5. Hyp;eradrenalcorticism (addison's disease)
What is vaccine interference?
too many vaccines at once, causes body to fail at adequately responding to all
What are some causes of vaccination failures?
1. Individual variation
2. Stress
3. Presence of maternal antibodies
4. Defects in vaccine administration
5. Vaccinate may be incubating disease prior to vaccination
6. Improper vaccine administration
7. Improper vaccine administration
8. Chemical sterilization of syringes
9. Concurrent antibiotic use
10. Excessive use of skin alcohol
11. vaccine interference
what are some causes of stress/
1. malnourished individ
2. parasitism
3. pregnancy
4. fatigue

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