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Chap. (4 &) 5 Test


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Greek philosophy based on
humans can understand their world
philosophy means
"the seeking of wisdom"
logic is
the science of reasoning
profesional teachers
sophists believed
"man is the measure of all things", truth is dif. for everyone, gods didn't influence human behavior
sophists did
traveled around, a lot in Athens, said find answers to all Qs, taught people to be good a politics
Socrates born
poor, sculptor by trade
Socratic method
ask Qs, oppose answers w/ logic, forced to defend & think clearly
Socrates accused of
corrupting youth & not worshiping gods
Plato born
aristocrat, thought 1st to be politician
Plato & Socrates
S teacher, when S died - became techer, recorded conversations from memory
Plato's book of politics
The Rebublic - plan for ideal society & gov
Plato & gov
disliked democracy, state more inmportant than indevidual, too much freedom -> social disorder, best edu. & smartest in charge, distrust other classes
Plato & truth
searched for, sences not source of truth, understand w/ logic
Aristotle's school
Lyceum, in athens
"golden mean"
live moderatly, avoid extremes in actions
way to present argument - one determines whether conclusion is from premises or basic statements
way to present arguement
Aritotles' book on science
Aristotle & science
knowlege through sences, 1st to observe facts & classify by same & dif., Earth - center of the universe
Aristotle' book of gov
Politics - ideal gov = monarcy + aristocracy + democracy, power in middle class -> command & obey
"the father of history"
Heroditus studied
persian wars
1st to separate fact from legend
Heroditus' book
Heroditus did
traveled, ask Qs, record answers, check reliability of sorces, accepted stuff as not true, offered supernatural explanations
Heroditus wrote about
military events, political events, people, customs, religion
Thucydides wrote about
peloponesian war
said gods not part of history - only humans, accurate & impersonal as posible, find why stuff happened, learn from past
Greeks science
world ruled by natural laws, discover laws w/ reason
Greeks & math
1st to call science, system to prove statements, believe could find true & eternal knowlege
Thales' from
Miletus, Ionia
Thales studied
astronomy in Babylon &
math in Egypt
Thales' theory
water is basic substance that everything is made of
try explain everythin w/ math, study whole #s & ratios, Pathagorean theorem, world round & revolve around fixed point
"the father of medicine"
Hippocrates believed
diseases natural not supernatural, body could heal self,
Hippocrates did
1st to call a science, encoraged docters to record cases, exchane info, hygene, plenty of rest, moral code
Macedonians lived
Balkan Pen. N of Greece
Philip II early life
hostage in Thebes, learned to admire greek culture & military organization
Philip II goals
- strong standing army
- unify greeks under rule
- destroy Persian empire
macedonian army
infantry - phalanxes, 16 x 16, lances, fought like unit
how philip got Greek city-states
conquered, bribed leaders, allied by marriage, (total 6-7 wives), city states not work together to restist
athenian orator, appealed to citizens to fight for liberty, didn't work
Philip's death
by persion agent or assasin from Olympia
Alexander's mother
olimpia - philip's 1st wife
about Alexander
tutored by Aristotle, 20 when king, comander since 16, highly respected by soldiers -> courage & military skill, thought of self as Achilles
Granicus River
1st major battle, W asia minor, elite cavalry smashed defences, after - offering to athena - 300 suits of persian armor to athens
after Granicus R
marched along coast of Asia minor, freed Ionia
2nd major battle, Syria, Darius III forced to flee
after Issus
S along Mediterranian, captured Phoenicia
how captured phoenicia
cut off fleet from supplies, fleet surrendered
after phoenicia
invaded Egypt
invasion of egypt
people didn't like persians, welcomed Alexander & made Pharaoh, built Alexandria
after Egypt, mesopotamia, near Tigris R, smashed main army
capture of persia
after Gaug., captured main city-states -> Babylon, Persopolis, Susa - treasure among army
became rular of Persia
when Darius killed by owm general, declared self rular, punished killer
how alexander died
feaver (malaria?), age 33
Alexander's goals
- punish Persia for invasion of greece
- create empire of Europe + Asia & combine best of greek & persian cuture
how Alexandr promoted goals by example
imitated persian dress & court life, married Darius' daughter, incouraged soldiers to marry persian women
domains (def)
after Alexander's death
political unity ended, 3 generals devided empire into domains, Greek language still spread & flourished, Hellenic ways mixed w/ middle E. culture -> Hellenistic culture
leaders of domains
Ptolemy, Seleucus, Antigonus
invasion of India
reached Indus R vally after 3 yrs, indian army - elephants , vetrans refused to go farther, went to Babylon & made capital
Egypt, Lybia, part of Syria
descendents called Selucids, rest of Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran, Afghanistan - forced to give up E territory
Jews & Palesitne
guerrillas lead by Judah Maccabee, ordered to worship greek gods by Selucid Antiochus IV, chalenged control of palestine, reocupied jeruselem -> rededecated Temple - Hanukkah
Macedonia & Greece, Greek city-states declared selves independent & fought among selves
largest & wealthiest city in empire
Alexandria center of learning
away from athens, 1st ever museum, library, institute of scientific reserch, zoo, scientists came from all over world
Hebrew bible translated into greek by Jewish scolars, used by apostle Paul & still used in E orthodox church
Hellenistic Greeks
Hellenic - involved in particular polis
Hellenistic - upper class of cities ruled by kings
Soldiers & Beaurocrats - traved to jobs - not loyal to king
Hellenistic women's status
improoved from athens, move about freely, some independence, upper class occupations - real estate, banking, gov., poets, philosophers
Hellenistic Philosophers
focused on personal behavior - how to acieve happiness
systems of thought: Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism
founded Cynicism
founded Epicureanism
founded Stoicism
criticized materialism, happy if gave up luxeries & live simply in accord w/ nature
should avoid joy & pain by accepting world as was, ignore politics, live simply & quietly w/ few close friends
word "stoicism"
from Stoa Poikile - "painted porch" where Zeno lectured
events gov. by natural laws, happy by ignore emotions & follow reason -> able to acceptmost dificult circumstances & do duty, effected Roman intelectuals & early Christian thinkers
Hellenistc art
powerful emotions
carved portrait heads b/c art became a bussiness
Hellenistic plays
comedies, ignored problems of outside world
renound playwrite, comedies about everday life
Hellenistic science
limited by instruments, many experaments, many new theories
of Samos, sun is larger than earth, earth revolves around sun, stars are far awy from both
estimated Earth's circumferance, 1% off
Hellenistic Doctors
dissectd corpses to learn anatomy, discovered nervous system, studied brain & liver, drugs for pain relief
of Alexandria, "the elemnts of geometry"
compound pulley, cylinder-screw - lift water for irrigation, principle of bouyancy, principle of the lever, Pi
Persia before invaded
ward times, Darius III weak
Colossus of Rhodes
island of " in harbor, helios

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