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History 17B Exam #1


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Freedmen's Bureau
1866 Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois...proposed a bill (Johnson's policy required modification)...all ppl in the US born as citizens were to enjoy without regard to race...states could no longer enact any discrimination laws...according to Trumbull "fundamental rights belonging to every man as a free man"
Johnson veteod the fucking bill...didnt feel blacks deserved citizen rights
Civil Rights Act of 1875
During Reconstruction legislation...Vicil Rights Act of 1875...outlawed racial discrimination in places of public accommodation like hotels & theaters
Mid 1870s during reconstruction was on defense...Democrats called themselves Redeemers, since they claimed to have "redeemed" the white South from corruption, misgovernment, northern and black control
Bargain of 1877
Presidential problems...appointed Hayes (rep) to become by sourthern states...agreed to recognize Democratic control of the entire South & cause no problems with local affairs...Hayes would place a southerner in cabinet position of postmaster general & work for federal aid to Texas & Pacific railroad...Dems promised not to cause problems with Hayes & repsect civil & political rights of blacks...appointed David M. Key of Tennessee as postmaster general
Dawes Act
named for Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, chair of the Senate's Indian Affairs Committee...1887...attack "tribalism"...the Act broke up the land of all tribes into small parcels...distributed to indian families and the rest auctioned to white purchases...Indians who accepted the farms and the way of "civlized life" would be pronoucned American citizens...Indians weren't happy about it...although Whites benefited alot
Ghost Dance
known as a religious revitalization campaign by the pan-Indian movements...led by Neolin & Tenskwatawa...the leaders said when whites dissapear, the buffalo would return, Indians would practice their customs "free from misery, death, and disease"...several of them joined together, fearing the federal government..on dec. 29, 1890...feds fucked up the Ghost Dancers near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota...Indian population decreased alot, but regained into the 20th century
Chief Joseph
1879, the Nez Perce leader...delivered a speech to Washington...including President Hayes...trying to enforce a policy of confining Indians to reservations...Joseph didn't get anywhere with leaving his people to return to their homeland in Oregon...Joseph was sent to another reservation in Washington Territory
Knights of Labor
1880s...1st group to try to organize unskilled workers as well as skilled (all races), reached a peak nearly 800,000 in 1886...involved millions of workers in strikes, boycotts, political action & educational and social activities...purpose of this was the need to fix the fucked up shit that involved, hard times, currency reform, anarchism, socialism...needed social conditions to be changed...head of Knights...Terence V. Powderly were "not the free people that we imagine we are"...caused problems with the economy * political corruption
Social Darwinism
social problems occured in the Gilded Age...Social Darwinism - evolution was as natural a process in human society as in nature, gov must not interfere such as laws regulating conditions of work or public assistance to the poor..if regulated, would fuck society even more...worers should practice personal economy, keep out of debt, educate their children, not depend of the gov for aid...largest influential Social Darinist...William Graham Sumner
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Derived from the ICC to ensure that rates railroads charged farmers and merchants to transport their goods were reasonable and not one getting better treatment than the other...1887, Banned combinations and practices that involved free trade through railroad practices...difficult enforcing this, 1st federal agency to regulate economic activity and shows that the national government can regulate the economy to promote the public good...helped judges use this act to prohibit strikes that involved free trade and to prevent chaos to business
Kansas Exodus
1879, apprx 50,000 blacks migrated to Kansas for political equality, peace, education, economic opportuniy...Huge expansion for job opportunity was located in the North, although ppl in the North didnt want to hire these fucks...preferred to hire white migrants form rural areas & immigrants from Europe..all blacks remained in the south as a result until WW1 in Europe in 1914 cut off immigration, causing the Great Migration
Anti-Imperialist League
Around 1900, trying to avoid racism, businessmen fearing the unability to maintain oversea outpost (united writers and social reformers)...League's goal: "help the world by an example of successful self-government", not conquer other people "A republic of free men"...rather than subjecting other countries like Puerto Rico & the Philippines to colonial rule, help fight for freedom...Dems opposed Philippine War, instead help them out...League was about "a new day of freedom", not material gain or national power
Homestead Strike
The Homestead Strike was a labor lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, with a bloody day-long battle between strikers and private security agents erupting on July 6, 1892. It is one of the most serious labor disputes in U.S. history. The dispute occurred in Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company.
New Immigration
1890s...3.5 million new comers entered the US...seeking jobs in the North and Midwest...mainly immigrated from southern & eastern Europe...these immigrants did not believe in liberty and therefore, posed to be dangerous...1894, the Immigration Restriction League wanted to reduce immigration..all states started to "Australian" ballot..which means, protect voters' privacy & limit participation of illiterates (couldnt receieve anymore help)...several states allowed voting to continue although the south cause suffrage to grew and became more of a privalege, not a right
Chinese Exclusion Act
Felt Chinese immgratns from Chica were dangerous according to Rep. James Blaine...1875, congress excluded Chinese women from entering the country...1882, Congrss temp. banned Chinese from enterting the US...1902, it became permanent...When this happend, the court ruled to expel Chinese aliens without due process of law
Coxey's Army
1984, Populists made the deman d for Coxey's Army to appeal to industrial workers and for federal unemployment relief along with Gov. Davis Waite of Colorado sent the militie to protect striking miners against company police...This was critical because of the horrific economic depression that was going a result, millions abandoned the elections of dem. pres. Cleveland
Plessy v. Ferguson
Court gave its approval to state lawsrequireing separate facilities for blacks and whites...there have already been issues in the south where segregation is occuring...arguements arose saying that it is against the 14th admendment...Case rose in Louisiana where railroad companies must have seperate cars for different color...Citizens Committee hired Albion to fight but didnt succeed
Hull House
1889, Jane Addams founded the Hull House in Chicago, aka "settlement house" --> to improve the lives of the immigrant poor. Helped build kindergartens and playgrounds for children, established employment bureaus & health clinics, help females gain legal protection...only improved vastly...this was the key for women to become important in politics and the progressive era
Lincoln Steffens
Poses magizines..."The Shame of the Cities"...published in McClure's Magazine in 1901-2..showed how party bosses and business leaders profited from political corruption...the advertising of unfair practice of business lead to the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906
Muller v. Oregon
1908, Louis Brandeis stated in this case that since women contain less strength and endurance than men, long hours for woman are dangerous simulstanously taking care of children...Ergo, the Supreme Court set a maximum hours woman can work and were able to receive benefits per law...which led into setting max hrs for men as well
Pure Food and Drug Act
Established a federal agency to police the quality and labeling of food and drugs and the Meat Inspection Act...helped gain confidence in the public's eye...although caused Franklin Roosevelt for federal inheritance and income taxes & regulation of all interstate businesses..."The Jungle" (1906) - discussed unsanitary slaughterhouses & sale of rotten meat pissed the public off and led to this Act in 1906 (PE)
New Freedom
Envisioned the federal gov strangthening antitrust laws, protecting the right of workers to unionize and encouraging small businesses...all to encourage competition in the economy with any increasement by the gov trying to regulate it...he felt that...felt that democracy has to be sure market competition is going on and not being dominated by big businesses. (PE)
Clayton Act
Wilson wante dto reduce duties on imports and to make up for lost revenue, impose an income tax on the richest %5 of Americans...the Clayton Act of 1914 exempted labor unions from antitrust laws & allowed labor unions to strike (PE)
Roosevelt Corollary
Around 1900--> Monroe Doctrine...held that the US has the right to exercise international police power in the Western expansion of Monroe's pledge to defend the hemisphere against European intervention...I.E. Roosevelt ordered American forces to take customs houses of the Dominican Republic to make sure payments are received to European and American investors...lead to an executive agreement, allowing American banks to control over Dominican finances (An Era of Intervention)
Espionage Act
1917, prohibited for spying, interfering with the draft and also false statements that may effect military success...1st time the Fed Gov enacted a law to restrict freedom of speech ever since the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Great Migration
between 1910-20, 500,000 blacks headed to the north (after WW1)...chicago, NY rose by alot...several motives: higher wages, education for children, escape from violance, right to vote...unfortunatly, there was still chaos: restricted employment opportunities, exclusion from unions, housing segregation, violance, racial hostility.
Marcus Garvey
Around 1921, he launched the Universal Negro Improvement Association --> a movement for African independence & black self-reliance...he's an immigrant from Jamaica...fought for freedom although didnt do to much for the people...shortly after was deported for mail fraud
American Protective League
around 1915, helped the Justice Department identify critics of the war by spying on their neighbors & carrying out "slacker raids"...where several men were stopped on the streets to fill out a draft card
Red Scare
1919-20, an intense period of political intolerance that was sparked by the postwar strike & social tensions & fears brought by the Russian Revolution...felt that some of these strikes could be related to communism...therefore, ordered federal agents to raid offices of radical & labor organizations throughout the country...several ppl were arrested (not even legally)...civil liberties were violated severally, suspecting Americans holding radical political ideas...Finally, they were released...alot of criticism was going on reationg of the Palmer raids was a good example of just how important civil liberties are

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