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Science IIA- Sec 5.3, 7.1-7.2


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actinide series
f-block elements from period 7.
forms of an element in the same physical state that have different structures and properties.
aufbau principle
states that each electron occupies the lowest orbital available.
diagonal relationships
close relationships between elements in neighboring groups.
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in an atom.
electron-dot structure
consists of the element's symbol, which represents the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons.
strong attraction of a substance to a magnetic field.
How did polonium get its name?
Marie Curie named/discovered it because she's from Poland.
How many valence electrons do the boron group have? do they gain or lose them?
3 valence electrons, which they lose.
How many valence electrons does group 6A contain?
6 valence electrons.
How many valence electrons does the 5A group have?
5 valence electrons
Hund's rule
states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.
lanthanide series
the f-block elements from period 6.
is in water, rocks, and soil. most similar to magnesium. is in batteries, drugs, and alloys.
branch of science that studies and designs methods for extracting metals and their compounds from ores.
an element or inorganic compound that is found in nature as solid crystals.
Noble Gas Notation
uses noble gases in brackets, then finishes with regular electron configuration.
a material frow which a mineral can be removed at an easy cost.
Pauli exclusion principle
states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
Sodium and Potassium
most abundant of all 1A elements, control biological functions (nerve impulses), fireworks, bananas
valence electrons
electrons in the atom's highest principle energy level.
What are some characteristics of carbon?
most substances controling cells contain carbon, pure carbon found in nature in only two alloropes- graphite and diamond.
What are some characteristics of lead?
toxic, similar to tin, used to be used to keep steel cans from rusting (easier and safer with aluminum), used to be using for eating utensils, pipes for plumbing, and paoint.
What are some characteristics of silicon?
mellatoid, used in computer chips and solar cells, can be found in quartz crystals, sand, and glass, second most abundant element in earth's crust (after oxygen), forms with oxygen to make silicon dioxide and carbon to form silicon carbide.
What are some characteristics of the alkali metals?
lose electrons thus having positive charge, soft, highly reactive, conduct heat and electricity.
What are some characteristics of tin?
first pure metal obtained from ores, and currently used for batteries in automobiles.
What are some properties of antimony?
unsed in cosmetics and batteries.
What are some properties of Arsenic?
toxic, used in small doses to treat illnesses.
What are some properties of bismuth?
used in pepto-bismal, automatic sprinkler systems.
What are some properties of boron?
main source of a complex compound of boran called borax -used as a cleaning agent and disinfectant.
What are some properties of gallium?
can melt in your hand, ideal for semiconductor chips, gallium nitride used to develop lasers.
What are some properties of nitrogen?
colorless, odorless, unreactive, found in air and proteins, 78% of atmosphere. used in TNT and nitroglycerin.
what are some properties of oxygen?
most abundant element, essential to life, two allotropes: ozone and O2.
What are some properties of Phosphorus?
3 allotropes: white, red, and black; used in flame-retardant and cleaning products.
What are some properties of selenium?
found in fish, eggs, and grains, converts light to electricity. used in solar panels and photo copiers. works with vitamin e, helps inhibit growth of cancer cells. too much is not good.
What are some properties of sulphur?
can be found in or combined with mercury or lead, yellow solid metal found in earth's crust, ten allotropes. sulfur dioxide is created when sulfur is burned... used to preserve food.
What are some properties of the 6A group?
mainly nonmetals, gain or share two electons.
What are some properties of the alkaline earth metals?
2 valence electrons, react with oxygen to create oxides, used in alkaline (basic) solutions, shiny hard solids.
What are the Group 1A elements called?
alkali metals.
What are the properties of hydrogen?
colorless, odorless, and lighter than air.
What determines the physical and chemical properties?
the number of valence electrons.
What element exists in three different isotopes?
what element is not part of a specific group?
hydrogen- because it has metallic and nonmetallic properties.
What is another name for group 2A?
Alkaline earth metals
What is another name for group 4A?
The Carbon Group
What is another name for group 6A?
The oxygen group
What is another name for the 3A group?
the boron group
What is another name for the 5A group?
The Nitrogen group.
What is found in all living things?
what is the goal for electron configurations?
for an atom to be as stable as possible.
What is the name of the branch of chemistry that studies carbon compounds?
organic chemistry
what way do periods go on the periodic table?
side to side.
which way do groups go on the periodic table?
up and down.
Why is aluminum recycled?
cheaper and TONS easier than to extract.

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