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Erythrocytosis vs. Anemia

Terms

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Erythrocytosis:

 

Polycythemia vera (primary) - Etiology

  • Disease of high absolute cells, produces more stem cells, or differentiate everything.
  • increase in all blood cell types
  • myeloproliferative disease

Erythrocytosis:

 

Polycythemia vera -  Clinical features

  • found in 50-70 yrs old (males)
  • splenomegaly, hepatomegaly
    • so many cells come out and need to be stored
    • increase in dead RBC
  • headaches (loss of O2), dizziness, breathlessness (unloading/loading hard w

Erythrocytosis:

 

Polycythemia vera - Lab findings

  • increased RBC, WBC, platelets
  • NRBC: pushed out early
    • metarubricytes
    • rubricytes
  • poikilocytes, tear drop cells (pushing into tiny vessels)
  • hypercellular bone marrow
  • decreased erythropoietin (s

Erythrocytosis:

 

Polycythemia vera - Treatment and prognosis
  • phlebotomy (1 bag)
  • myelosuppressive drugs; depress all stem cells
  • mean survival rate is 10-20 yrs with treatment; 1.5-3 yrs without

Erythrocytosis:

 

Secondary erythrocytosis - Etiology 

  • increased erythropoietin stimulation (in kidney)
  • appropriate increases - reaction to hypoxia
    • lung and heart disease
    • live in high altitudes: less O2, need more RBC to carry O2 to tissues
  • inappropriate increa

Erythrocytosis:

 

Secondary erythrocytosis - Lab findings
  • RBC increase
  • WBC and platelets are normal

Erythrocytosis:

 

Relative erythrocytosis 
  • "pseudo-polycythemia"
  • Etiology:
    • burns
    • dehydration
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
  • Same clinical features as Polycythemia vera
  • Increase in RBC because of decrease in plasma
    <

Anemia

  • Decrease in hemoglobin and/or RBC mass
  • Decrease in hematocrit

Anemia

 

Factors Affecting Diagnosis  

  • gender
  • age
  • geography (low vs. high altitude)

Anemia

 

Clinical features 

  • fatigue: not enough RBC
  • shortness of breath: not enough O2 carried
  • headaches
  • pale lips and nailbeds
  • increased CO with palpitations (not expiring CO2 off)
  • tachycardia: speed up muscle to get more CO2

Anemia

 

Etiology 

  • iron deficiency
  • blood loss
  • nutritional deficiencies
  • hemolysis
  • metastatic bone marrow replacement
  • infections

Anemia

 

Morphological Classifications 

  • microcytic, hypochromic anemias
    • hemoglobin, iron deficiencies
  • Megaloblastic (macrocytic) anemias
    • folic acid deficiency
  • Normocytic, normochromic anemias
    • lysing of cells
    • <

Anemia

 

Lab findings 

  • rbc count
  • hgb
  • hematocrit
  • RBC indices
  • peripheral blood smear
  • reticulocyte count: test how bone marrow is responding to see if it is making cells. Will increase if making cells
  • bone marrow smear, biosp

Deck Info

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