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Module 5/Pharmacology and Disease/Section 8/Pharmacology/Ear,Nose and Throat (EN

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_________ act as vasoconstrictors to reduce blood flow to edematous tissues in the nose, sinuses and pharynx; they achieve this vasoconstriction by stimulating the alpha receptors in these tissues.
decongestants
Name (5) things that decongestants do.
1)vasoconstrictors--reduce blood flow to edematous tissues in the nose
2)reduce swelling of the mucous membranes
3)alleviate nasal stuffiness
4)allow secretions to drain
5)help unclog the eustachian tubes
ephedrine
decongestant
Afrin, Dristan, Sinex
decongestant
Neo-Synephrine
decongestant
pseudoephedrine
(Drixoral,Sudafed) decongestant
Name (2) things that antihistamines do.
1)dry up secretions
2)block the histamine at the H1 receptors
Antihistamines are only effective in treating what?
allergic reactions, which release histamines
Antihistamine are not effective in treating what?
the common cold
Benadryl
antihistamine
Clartin
antihistamine
Seldane
antihistamine
Hismanal
antihistamine
What is the purpose of mast cell inhibitors? (2)
1)act to stabilize the membrane of mast cells
2)and prevent them from releasing histamine
**prevents edema of the nasal passages in patients with allergic rhinitis
cromolyn
(Nasalcrom) mast cell inhibitor for ENT
What can be applied topically as a paste to treat mouth ulcers and inflammation?
corticosteroids
beclomethasone
(Beconase, Vancenase) corticosteroid for ENT
dexamethasone
(Decadron) corticosteroid for ENT
What is the purpose of antitussive drugs?
act to decrease coughing by suppressing the cough center in the brain
codeine
antitussive drug
Tessalon Perles
antitussive drug
Hycodan
antitussive drug
What is the purpose of expectorant drugs?
they reduce the viscosity or thickness of sputum so it can be coughed up more easily.
Expectorant drugs are prescribed only for what?
only for producing sputum coughs
Candida albicans
fungal infection of the mouth
oral candidiasis
(yeast infection) fungal infection of the mouth
monilia
fungal infection of the mouth
thrush
fungal infection of the mouth
Antifungal drugs are applied how? (2)
1)topically as a solution (patient is told to "swish and swallow")
2)a troche or a lozenge to suck
Mycelex
antifungal drug
Nizoral
antifungal drug
nystatin
antifungal drug
Chloraseptic
combination ENT drug; topical anesthetic throat spray
cocaine
combination ENT drug; topical anesthetic and vasoconstrictor used during ENT examinations and operations on the nose
silver nitrate
combination ENT drug; cauterizing agent applied with applicator stick, used to cauterize superficial blood vessels such as causes nosebleeds
triamcinolone
(Nasacort) corticosteroid for ENT
**or Kenalog in Orabase--can be applied topically as a paste to treat mouth ulcers and inflammation

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