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Psych 101 CH2


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cells that transmit information within the nervous system
glial cells (glia)
cells in the nervous system that compromise the support system for neurons
fibers projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to recieve information from other neurons
cell body
part of neuron, contains nucleus and the other biological machinery to keep the cell alive and that decides whether or not to generate a neural impulse in order to pass incoming information on to other neurons
long, singular fiber projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to conduct the neural impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals triggering chemical communication with other neurons
myelin sheath
insulating layer covering an axon that allows for faster neural impulses
a naturally occuring chemical in the nervous system that specializes in transmitting information between neurons
synapse (synaptic gap)
microscopic gap between neurons across which neurotransmitters travel to carry their messages to other neurons
positron emission tomography (PET)
a visual display of the activity levels in various areas of the brain generated by detecting the amount of positron emission created by the metabolization of radioactive glucose in each area
fMRI (functional magnetic response imaging)
a computerized image of the activity levels of various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of oxygen brought to each area
a drug or poison that increases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters
a drug or posion that decreases the activity of one or more of the neurotransmitters
ACh (acetylcholine)
neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and muscle movement
a neurotransmitter involved in arousal and mood states, thought process, and physical movement
Parkinson's disease
a disease in which the person has movement problems such as muscle tremors, difficulty initiating movements, and rigidity of movement. These movement problems stem from a scarcity of dopamine in the basal ganglia.
blood-brain barrier
protective mechanism by which the blood capilaries supplying the brain create a barrier that prevents dangerous substances access to the brain
a drug for Parkinson's disease that contains the precursors to dopamine so that once it's in the brain, it will be converted to dopamine
serotonin and norepinephrine
neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood, sleep, and eating
SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
drugs that achieve their agonistic effect on serotonin by selectively blocking its reuptake
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is involved in lowering arousal and anxiety and regulating movement
the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is involved in memory storage, pain, perception, strokes, and schizophrenia
a group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure

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