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Religion in US Final


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ï‚· Azusa Street: A. C. Valdez
ï‚· Wrote memoir about Azusa Street Revival and early Pentecostalism ï‚· Mexican-American Pentecostal preacher ï‚· Attended Azusa St since ten years old
ï‚· William Seymour
ï‚· A founding member of pentecostalism ï‚· Student of Parham ï‚· African-American minister of Azusa St Pentecostal Church ï‚· Moved to LA and began Azusa St Revival (1906-1915)
ï‚· Prayer Power
 In regards to miraculous healings in reform Christianity  84% of people believe prayer helps heal  medical acknowledgement that patients are religious/believe in religion – more often one goes to church -> longer life
ï‚· Lucy Smith
ï‚· Organized a roving Pentecostal congregation and then ï‚· Founded a Pentecostal church in 1926 in the African-American section of Chicago ï‚· Considered herself to be a faith healer ï‚· By time of death, church was racially integrated and 5000 members strong
ï‚· Victory Outreach
 Sub-branch of Pentecostalism (Assemblies of God)  Arguinzoni started as recovered drug addict  Exclusive membership to prostitutes, gamblers, junkies, gang members, poor  Accepted rehab program – cold turkey  Accepts birth control and contraceptives, unlike normal AOG
ï‚· Pentecostalism
 Evangelical and Fundamentalist revival movements  Azusa Street  Manifestations of Holy Spirit by speaking in tongues and healing through touch  To prove pureness and quantify themselves as a religion, they claim a history back to Paul (apostolic church) where the members lived in secret over the centuries  “Greatest American Success Story” – fastest growing Christian sect  Split into Assemblies of God (white, trinitarian), Oneness of God (white, unitarian), and Church of God in Christ (black)
ï‚· Marcus Garvey
ï‚· Leader of Back to Africa movement ï‚· In 1920s ï‚· Proprietor of black superiority and nationalism, pro-segregation ï‚· His movement was led to the rise of Black Islam (Malcolm X)
 E. Muhammad’s “The Way to Eat to Live”
 Leader of Nation of Islam’s dietary recommendations for Black Muslims  How often one should eat, what one should eat, and the amount one should eat  Book series published in 1960s  Any food given by whites to animals or slaves prohibited
ï‚· Martin Luther King
 A leader in the Civil Rights Movement  Evangelical Christian, raised surrounded by Fundamentalists  Within America, one can work to be a better Christian society, often rejected in favor of individual improvement  At first, tried to end segregation to end racism – learned a little more complicated  Started supporting American capitalism – maybe not as effective as previously thought, when spend money on Vietnam War
ï‚· Detroit Red
 Another name of Malcolm X, nickname while in Harlem, street name  Given just before downgrade into selling and using drugs, while working at Small’s Paradise bar
ï‚· Freedom Songs: Fannie Lou Hamer
 Member of civil rights movement, Evangelical Fundamentalist  “Singing Lady” – sing even in jail  badly beaten and often imprisoned, but continued to be active in movement  member of Democratic Freedom Party (democratic party for non-racists)  ran for president – scolded America for racism, voted for herself
ï‚· Mecca (Malcolm X)
ï‚· Location of traditional Islamic pilgrimage ï‚· Where the first humans (blacks) were located, living peacefully under Allah ï‚· After Malcolm X took pilgrimage, converted to orthodox Islam and changed name (See Hajj Malik)
ï‚· The Way of the Shaman
ï‚· Book relating Native American Shamanism to a New Age audience ï‚· Shows current, popular interest in Native American cultures, published in 1980
ï‚· Maria Monk
 Anti-Catholic propaganda through false biography  1836 – Maria Monk becomes popular  What is wrong with Catholics- secrecy (private establishments), anti-democratic (might follow Rome vs own country)
ï‚· Yacub
ï‚· NOI parable of an evil scientist who created all European and other races ï‚· Shows black superiority and intelligence ï‚· mad scientist who unleashed an evil race of white people on Europe that conspired to abuse nonwhites for 6,000 years
ï‚· El Hajj Malik El Shabazz
ï‚· Malcolm Little -> Malcolm X(African name he would have had) -> Shabazz ï‚· After haj pilgrimage, transition into orthodox Islam instead of Nation of Islam instead of Christianity ï‚· After pilgrimage, saw Islam at its best, converts into orthodox ï‚· Can have non-racial religion and society - everything would be better if everyone was Muslim
ï‚· Evangelical
 Protestants  From Martin Luther’s ideologies  Responsibility to spread gospel if one desires to be a good Christian  Great focus on conversion – others’ lives need to be changed  Also focus on activism – doing good in society – and biblicalism – living a biblically-based lifestyle  1880-present
ï‚· Fundamentalism
 Evangelicals  Focus on the literal interpretation of the Bible  1920-present  victories – prohibition/temparance – end gambling and drinking - evolution banned in many schools in 1920s
ï‚· Liberty University
ï‚· Christian university founded in 1971 ï‚· Founded by Jerry Falwell, a Baptist pastor and member of religious right ï‚· Part of the re-entering of Fundamentalists in politics
ï‚· Charles Fox Parham
ï‚· Founding member of Pentecostalism ï‚· Importance of feeling the Holy Spirit ï‚· Taught both faith healing and speaking in tongues
ï‚· Warith Deen Muhammad
ï‚· Son of Elijah Muhammad, heir to Nation of Islam takes over in 1976 ï‚· Challenges father as notices inconsistencies in NOI theology ï‚· Advocates change to Suni Islam, learn Arabic, study Koran as main text (vs Bible) ï‚· Becomes Imam (leader) of Muslim American Society/American Black Muslim
ï‚· Dwight L. Moody
 A great evangelist of the late 1800s  Anecdotal rather than theological sermons  Sentimental Christianity, everyone can be saved through God’s mercy  Passive role as examples of true Christians
ï‚· Scopes Trial
 Forbade the teaching of evolution in Tennessee public schools  Conducted in 1925, ended in 1967  Came from the Fundamentalists’ influence in politics
ï‚· Richard Allen
 African American who, with friends, were barred from a white Methodist church by the ushers from sitting where they wanted and were eventually physically removed when they protested, despite Allen being a Methodist preacher and, as a group, contributed to the church’s remodeling  A founder of African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1794  Elected as a first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME)Church denomination  Segregational, chosen or not, of religious centers – rise of Black Church
ï‚· Para-liturgical devotions
 Example: Saints’ veneration in Catholicism - worship of individual saints, Seven Sacraments  Practices not biblically-based, but sanctioned by church  often specific to locations (i.e. Virgin de Guadalupe)
ï‚· Our Lady of Copper
 Example of syncretism: Catholic Saints +Santeria from Yoruba transition  Virgen Del Cobre in Santeria is Oshun, an Orisha, a protective spirits  Saints’ veneration in Catholicism, a para-liturgical devotion, specific to Cuba
ï‚· Rita Swan
 As member of Christian Science Church along with her husband, refused treatment for baby son with Meningitis  Started CHILD, Children\'s Healthcare is a Legal Duty, after son died  Raised to doubted medicine’s effectiveness, “entire support system would be gone”, no one would pray for child, her fault because her fear was causing the fever
ï‚· Mary Baker Eddy
 Founder of Church of Christ Scientists, 1870s  CCS formed as response to medical community – not very effective, male-dominated profession (except a few lingering midwives)  Writings are both biblical and supplementary(Eddy’s work)  Healing – sickness is product of animal magnetism (hubris), understand God to remove symptoms – taught by Practitioners
ï‚· The Total Woman
 Best-selling book of 1970s  Evangelical female author who told women that they should have orgasms  Also instructed how women should manage their households, husbands, and spiritual lives  Didn’t directly challenge patriarchy, but showed value of equality during sexual intercourse  Class included call to accept Christ, a form of evangelism  Freed sex from sin – after Eden, sex didn’t change
ï‚· This Present Darkness
ï‚· Christian fiction novel about spiritual warfare ï‚· Provided entertainment while reinforcing faith and preparing readers to fight for Christian causes in politics and culture ï‚· Published in 1986 by Peretti
In an argumentative, well-documented, essay discuss whether you think the Nation of Islam from its inception in 1931 and through the 1960s should be considered primarily a religious movement or primarily a socio-political movement. Your essay should inco
 No (ish)  Purpose was race-specific – show black superiority and condemn whites  Malcolm was surprised during the Hajj that there were Muslims of varying ethnicity  Decline of membership after 1960s with successes in attaining equal rights – out of style  Politically active during 1950-60s  Large number of members had been in prison - rehabilitation  Compare to Black (Christian) Church – still able to gain memberships at a similar rate  Compare to Victory Outreach – socially active, rehabilitations, spread religion and morals to those without
The Nation of Islam has not grown significantly in recent years. In a critical, well documented, essay discuss why the Nation of Islam was successful in recruiting members as in the 1950s and early 1960s, and the reasons for the lack of success in the pa
 Political movement whose teachings are out-of-date  Compare to Black Church – politically active but didn’t change original meanings  Fallen out of press, interest, old news, Malcolm X’s book is “classic”  Teachings too specific – exactly 6,000 years of abuse – compare to Millerites (adventists) who chose specific dates  Malcolm’s decision to convert based greatly on the “whites are devils” idea  No longer segregation – whites and blacks can know each other well enough to see that by being a different color skin one is not automatically evil  Compare to Pentecostals – efforts to prove pureness and provide credentials
John Jay wrote in The Federalist Papers (1787) that: \"Americans are one united people--a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion,..., and very similar in their manners and customs.\" Write a cri
 Definition of “American” is specialized in 1787 – likely only referring to adult white males of European descent, as alluded to by “same ancestors” and “same language”  If update phrasing and definitions for modern times, it could work - Not necessarily same religion, but same religious morals and attitudes, etc.  Direct meaning is not preserved, but inner/intended meaning is arguable  Now – American = adult (mention Spirit controversy for children), same ancestors is moot, same language is debatable, same religion = same morals, similar manners and customs is moot as is related to ancestors (sometimes)

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