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Which type of psychotherapy focuses on changing unwanted behaviors rather than on discovering their underlying cause?
Behavior therapy
When a child is able to pour the same amount of liquid into containers of different sizes, yet still "sees" that the liquid has not changed in amount, Piaget called it ____.
Fixation at the _____ stage, stemming from traumatic toilet training experiences, may result in individuals who are either excessively orderly or stubborn.
The scientific study of birth defects is called:
Prozac is most often used to treat
If asked to move back and forth between two chairs--playing yourself in one chair and the role of some other person in another chair--you are probably engaging in which of the following therapy techniques?
Two-chair exercise
In a study investigating the effects of a particular drug on recovery from emotional disturbance, the drug is a(n):
independent variable
If one of your roommates is described as careful and another roommate is described as careless, they differ on the key personality dimension of
Our tendency to take credit for positive outcomes, but to blame negative outcomes on external causes, is called
The self-serving bias
Playing a slot machine is an example of which schedule of reinforcement?
variable ratio (VR)
In emergency situations, research has found that the presence of MANY potential helpers ____ the likelihood that someone will stop and help a stranger who seems to need help.
When a person yields to group pressure it is called ____ and when he or she responds to a direct request it is called ____.
conformity; compliance
Alfred is in psychotherapy with a doctor who is very knowledgeable and an expert on Alfred's particular problem. Still, Alfred isn't sure the doctor really cares about him and is afraid to tell the doctor everything he is thinking. Alfred and his doctor h
Therapeutic alliance
The psychiatrist who developed psychoanalysis is:
Sigmund Freud
The therapy technique in which a person is asked to speak about anything that comes to his/her mind is called _____; this technique is favored by _____ therapists.
free association; psychoanalytic
The humanistic personality theorists emphasize
personal responsibility
Which of the following correlations suggest the WEAKEST relationship between two variables?
Which form of therapy focuses on removing flaws and distortions in a person's self- concept?
Cognitive therapy
If we find a high positive correlation between event A and event B, which of the following is/are TRUE statements?
if A, then B is more likely
Having a large number of individuals complete a questionnaire is called the ____ approach to research.
Most recent research suggests that psychotherapy is
More effective than no treatment at all
Which of the following has/have some research support as a possible cause of depression?
hopelessness--person makes internal, stable, and global attributions for failures
The correct order for Piaget's stages are:
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, formal
Psychologist use the term ____ to describe the average score of a group.
George decided to get a tattoo because most of his friends have them. His behavior is an example of
Negative reinforcement is the result of the ____ of an unpleasant stimulus, whereas positive reinforcement is the result of the ____ of a pleasant stimulus.
removal; presentation
Which of these statements is most likely to be made by someone having a manic episode?
"I'm going to rip out the back wall and build a new kitchen this afternoon."
Without any specific warning sign, Jenny experiences intense fear of losing control and a variety of physical symptoms including pounding heart, chest pains, nausea, and feeling dizzy. Jenny is most likely experiencing a:
panic attack
While in the desert, Konrad Lorenz observed that rattlesnakes would not bite other snakes. He was conducting a(n) ____ study.
Which of these illustrates someone using the technique of ingratiation to borrow $20.00?
My, you're looking lovely today!
Identical twins share __% while fraternal twins share __% of their genes in common:
100, 50
Antipsychotic drugs seem to produce their effects by ______ in the brain.
Blocking dopamine effects
The major single reason for a dramatic drop in the number of patients in mental hospitals from the 1950's to the 1970's is
drug therapy
According to the COGNITIVE perspective, what is learned during conditioning?
A change in your attitudes is most likely to occur when you
Have weak reasons for saying what you do not believe in.
A possible side effect of using some types of antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia which includes involuntary movements of the jaw, tongue and lips is called
Tardive dyskinesia
Psychoanalytic theory would explain dissociative disorders to be the result of:
massive reliance on repression to ward off unacceptable impulses
A mental patient walks around the hospital telling others how he is really a millionaire on vacation. This is probably a(n)
Pretending to be emotionally disturbed, one researcher gained hospital admittance to study daily life in a mental hospital. The results of this study would be of greatest interest to the
clinical psychologist
____ is a form of dissociative disorder in which a person alternates between a primary personality and one or more secondary or subordinate personalities
Dissociative identity disorder
The process by which we decide what factors caused another person to act in a certain way is called
A type of schizophrenia characterized by extreme psychomotor disturbances which may range from stuporous immobility to wild excitement and agitation is:
catatonic schizophrenia
For which form of psychotherapy is the therapist's role more like a trainer?
According to Cognitive Dissonance Theory, a person's basic motivation is to:
achieve consistency
Two factors are necessary for schizophrenia to develop. The first is a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia; the second is severe life stresses. This explanation is consistent with a(n) ____ perspective.
interactional (diathesis-stress)
Electroconvulsive therapy is sometimes used to treat severe:
A specific irrational fear that may or may not interfere with everyday functioning is called
a phobia
The group of disorders including amnesia, fugue, and identity, in which the thoughts and feelings that generate anxiety are separated from conscious awareness, is called:
Dissociative disorders
According to cognitive therapies, the self-defeating cycle of many psychological problems starts with
Irrational beliefs
It seems that almost every time little Bobby goes to the doctor's office he gets a shot. Now, upon entering the doctor's office he cries. This is an example of classical conditioning in which the conditioned response is:
crying at the sight of the doctor's office

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