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An account which holds that dreams may reflect the brain’s aroused state during REM sleep, when the cerebral cortex is active but shut off from sensory input
Drugs used to prevent seizures
drugs that stimulate the mood to lesson depression
a group of drugs used to treat psychosis
Central Sleep Apnea
the brain's control centers "forget" to breathe during sleep. The sleeper stops breathing, and then starts again. There is no effort made to breathe during the pause in breathing: there are no chest movements and no struggling, just stillnes
Influences on drug use
  • Nature of the drug
  • Biological factors
  • Psychological factors
  • Cultural or social factors
Information Processing
The modelling of sensory input and cognitive transformations as a series of processing stages
Mood Stabilizers
psychiatric medications used in the treatment of mood disorders characterised by rapid and unstable mood shifts
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Airway is physically obstructed, interfering with breathing
Psychoactive drugs
medications that have an effect on emotion, cognition, or behavior
Psychotropic drugs
medications prescribed for the intent of having an effect on emotion, cognition, or behavior
REM Rebound
When a person is deprived of REM sleep, the next time they sleep they will spend more time in REM sleep than usual.
Stage 1
  • Lasts up to 5 minutes
  • On an EEG machine, this phase is noted by alpha waves
Stage 2
  • Lasts up to 20 minutes
  • On an EEG machine, this phase is noted by sleep spindles or rapid rhythmic brain activity
Stages 3 and 4
  • Transitional stage leading to Stage 4
  • These phases last 30 minutes and on an EEG machine are recorded as delta waves or slow-wave sleep  
  • Stage 4 occurs early in sleep
Tolerance and Withdrawal
If the original stimulus is maintained, there is an attenuation of the emotional state one is in; if it is withdrawn, the opponent process reveals itself, and the emotional state swings sharply in the opposite direction

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