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Biology 102


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What are ATP and NADPH used for inside the cell?
ATP is used for energy transfer and storage and NADPH is used for electron transfer
What are the products of the light reaction?
Light reaction produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen
What are the products of the dark reaction?
Why do plant leaves look green?
because green isnt absorbed and therefore the plant reflects that color
Do C4 plants include the C3 pathway? Do C3 plants include the C4 pathway?
C4 plants include the C3 Pathway but C3 plants do not include the C4 pathway
Where is C4 photosynthesis most efficient? What about C3 photosynthesis?
C4 is effecient in hot and dry climates (corn, sugarcane, sorghum) C3 is efficient in cool, moist climates (wheat, lentils, rice)
What type of photosynthesis is common in the palouse? what about iowa?
Palouse = C3 Iowa = C4
Why does drought limit plant growth?
because stomata's close to preserve water and therefore the plant lacks sugar
Why do farmers apply nitrogen to crops?
to make more chlorophyll which then increases photosynthesis
How do herbicides kill weeds?
by blocking electron transport. Paraquat steals electrons from the light reaction
What are the advantages of using plants for biofuels?
it cuts carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels
What did plants need to develop to colonize land?
They needed to develop roots and a vascular system
What is the plant vascular system for food transport called? What about for water?
For food it is called the Phloem. For water is called the Xylem.
What is the advantage of having seeds?
they provide nutrients and protection
What are the petals on a flower for? What about the sepals, carpals and stamens?
Petals - to attract pollinators Sepals - to protect the flower Carpals - is used for female reproduction. The stigma catches the pollen, the style supports the stigma and connects to the ovary which contains female gametes. Stamens - male reproduction. The anther contains pollen, filament supports anther.
What type of pollination is most advantageous for common species? Rare species? Single individuals?
Common Species - Wind pollination because it is indiscrete, produces large amounts of pollen Rare Species - animal/insect pollination because it's discrete, specialized and produces small amounts of pollen Single individuals - vegitative
What are examples of ways that plants attract pollinators?
Shape, scent, special pigments, and flower color
What are the effects of fire on plants in southern california?
they are good because plants promote fire with flammable oils so that fire reoccurs
How do plants in S.C survive a fire?
by going underground and re-sprouting after the fire is over. Pine trees have resin that seals the cone and melts after the fire.
what is the benefit of genetically engineered crops?
Less pesticides are needed, there are lower costs and less pollution
What is the disadvantage of genetically engineered crops?
it can harm insects
Why are females careful about choosing their mates?
eggs are expensive and a large investment in not only time but care for young too
Why do males attempt to mate with many females?
sperm is cheap so they mate a lot which gives them the chance to pass on their traits
what is the difference between polygyny and monogamy and why are they both beneficial?
Polygyny - one male with several mates Monogomy - one male and one female both both beneficial because they both care their young
what are examples of physical environmental factors that an organism must cope with? what about biological environmental factors?
physical - temperature, moisture, light, soils biological - same species, competitors, mutualist, parasites
what is the difference between microenvironment and regional climate?
microenvironment - is waht the organism senses at the time regional - broad, long term climate in an area
What are examples of scientific studies that might be conducted at each organizational scale of ecology?
SIngle individual and their response to something Death, reproduction focus on group as oppose to individual
What are the only organisms capable of providing new energy to an ecosystem?
organisms who photosynthesize aka the producers such as plants and phytoplankton
What are the three general trophic levels? Where do they get their energy and nutrients?
Producers - get thier energy from the sun and decomposers Consumers - get their energy from producers and decomposers Decomposers - get their energy from the dead
What are some of the major sources of pollutants?
agriculture - nitrogen phosphorous, pesticides industry - mercury, PCB's, acid rain and led
What is an example of biological magnification? what are the effects?
DDT - thinned egg shells (bald eagles)
What causes blue baby syndrome? What are the effects?
It is caused by nitrates in the drinking water... infants can develop serious long term health problems
What was the result of pollution in Lake Washington in the 1960's?
Eutrophication... the lake caught on fire, and we had mutant fish
What are the sources of mercury in the environment and what are the effects?
Coal plants, industrial waste Adults - increase in blood pressure Children - delayed development
what causes variation in climate with latitude? What is the result?
Filter effect - atmosphere is thicker at the poles Area effect - the sun spread out over broad area so the poles are cold and the equator warm
The air circulation patterns create distinct patterns of biomes with latitude. What biomes are found at 0 degrees? what about 30, 60, 90 nort and south latitudes.
0- equatorial - tropical 30 - desert, grasslands 45 - cool temperature, deciduous 60 - cold continental, coniferous 90 - arctic cold
what is the effect of land mass on climate? what is the result?
Rain Shadow
Why is the water in the Puget sound so cold?
Ocean currents from the arctic
What is the difference between benthic and pelagic organisms in the ocean? what are some examples of each type?
Benthic - Ocean flower (kelp, seaweed) Pelagic - in the water (fish)
What is the difference between the photic and aphotic zones in an ocean?
Photic Zone - in the light Aphotic Zone - in the dark
Where would you find photosynthetic organisms?
photic zone
What are the littoral, limnetic and profundal zones in a lake?
Littoral Zone - shallow water on the edge of lakes Limnetic Zone - open water near surface, light Profundal zone - deep water in lake, no light
what are the different types of energy and mass exchange?
energy exchange - absorb light, heat transfer mass exchange - water uptake and less photosynthesis, eating
What is the organism energy budget?
Energy in = energy out Radiation absorbed = reradiation +convection+latent heat exchange
How can organisms change the radiation absorbed? Provide examples...
organisms change the radiation absorbed by absortivity (Sunglasses, hairs, pines, orientation)
How can organisms change reradiation? Provide examples
organisms cannot change reradiation!!!
What is the boundary layer? how can organisms change the boundary layer? provide examples.
Convection can be in either direction, gain or lose heat in the boundary layer. Examples are fur, warmer clothes, hairs on a leaf. Shredding changes the boundary layer.
What is latent heat exchange? How can an organism change it? Provide examples.
It is formulated by heat of vaporization X amount of water loss. Latent heat exchange is water loss, to change it you increase or decrease water loss to change it. EX: panting, sweating, transpiration, swimming
What component of the energy budget is changed by wearing sunglasses? What about by wearing a warm coat? How are dogs losing energy by panting and humans losing energy by sweating? Be prepared to identify the component of the energy budget that is chan
Sunglasses – absorption Wearing a Coat – convection Panting/Sweating – Latent heat exchange
What are regulatory, acclimation, or developmental homeostasis. What are examples of each type?
Regulatory – short term, reversible (leaf angle, behavior, stomates) Acclimation – Long term, reversible (leaf hairs, fur) Development - Permanent
Plants shutting their stomates is an example of what kind of homeostasis?
Dogs shedding their hair is an example of what kind of homeostasis? what about leaf hairs?
Acclimation for both
What are examples of migration and dormancy?
Migration - birds Dormancy - seeds animals and plants
Key properties of populations are population dispersion, growth, size, and density. What is represented by each of these?
Growth – How fast do individuals increase in numbers Size – What factors regulate the number of individuals Density – How many individuals per unit area
What are the three types of population distribution? What factors lead to each type? What are examples of each?
Clumped – social organism, resource hot spot, reproduction Uniform – rare, competition causes organisms to be spaced, desert plants Random – uniform distribution of resources, no regard to others
What is an example of continental drift controlling species distribution?
Beech Tree is an example⬦ South America, Australia and New Zealand
What is an example of physical environment controlling species distribution? How does it do this?
The saguaro. They cannot live in extremely cold temperatures
A species of barnacle has the capacity to live all of the way from northern Alaska to Oregon, yet it is only found in Alaska. Why?
Competition between it and another, Dominant species. The dominant species overwhelms the other.
What are some examples of exponential growth?
Mice, Rabbits, Cockroaches... The all fuck alot
What are examples of logistic growth?
Pine trees, Darwin Finches, WSU students
What are examples of density-independent and density dependent effects? How does each of these determine population growth?
Density-Independent Effects - independent of the size of the population ex: weather (katrina) Density dependent - dependent on the size of the population - competition for resources increases as population grows.
What are examples of r- and k-selected species?
R Selected favors exponential growth such as bacteria, weeds, cockroaches (lots of low quality young) K selected favors logistic grown such as trees and mammals (few, high quality young)
Easter Island once had a large human population, but very few people are there today. Why?
The maximum carrying capacity for the island was 15,000 people and they surpassed it meaning there were no resources left to survive. They cut down all the trees(no houses or boats), eroded the land (no farming) so they died.
What is the difference between inter- and intra-specific competition? What are some examples?
Inter – competition between individuals of different species Intra – competition between individuals of the same species
What is the effect of competition on a species potential versus actual range? What is an example?
Actual range can be less than the potential range The barnacles in Alaska. Range is Alaska -> Oregon but they are only found in Alaska chillin with palin.
What is competitive exclusion? What are some examples?
2 or more species competing for the same resource. One is eliminated⬦ the poor barnacle.
What is resource partitioning? What are two ways to accomplish this? What are examples of each way?
2 or more species partitioning resources among them, thereby eliminating competition Sympatric – same area Allopatric – different areas
What are three types of species interactions? What are examples of each?
Mutualism – species A and Species B both benefit… Ant/Plant Commensalisms – Species A benefits Species B is not affected (Bird/tree) Parasitism – Species A benefits species b is harmed (ticks/humans)
What are three types of parasitism?
Ecto-parasites – live on the host (tick or lice) Endon-parasites – live in the host (worms in a dog) Brood-parasites – host takes care of parasite young (birds)
Diversity decreases with latitude. Why?
Near the equator has more habitats, is undisturbed and has a longer evolutionary history.
What are some examples of ecosystem services that are important to human health?
Many first drugs/medicines were first noticed in plants Researchers study whales on how to treat people for strokes/shock Clean air/water and fertile soil.
How can losing biodiversity impact human health? What about natural and agricultural systems?
No drugs or medicines Loss of pollinators Loss of natural pest control
What is a biological bank account?
species diversity - yew
What is a genetic bank account?
genetic diversity - food crops
Research at WSU has led to preservation of species and the development of new medicines. What are examples of these?
Taxol, identified gene
What is the effect of cheatgrass on fire cycles?
There were more range fires. Fires every 3-5 years as opposed to every 60-100
What is the effect of cheatgrass on biodiversity in our region?
It lowers biodiversity because it's dominant Local species cannot survive fire Out-competes natives and eliminates habitats
What three factors promote biodiversity? How?
Ecosystem diversity - show many habitats Ecosystem size - bigger/more diversity Latitude - filter stuff
What is the difference between keystone species and functional groups of species?
Functional groups have more than one species performing a funciton Keystone species has only one species performing a function
What are the benefits of high biodiversity?
It promotes ecosystem diversity You can lose one species and lose the funciton
What is the only way cabon dioxide can be removed from ecosystems?
What are the greenhouse gasses and can their concentrations change naturally?
N20 - Nitrous Oxide CO2 - Carbon Dioxide CH4 - Methane
What is the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on desert ecosystems?
it promotes invasion by non-native species
Are changes in community composition caused by climate change or can they be natural?
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary - succession that begins with bare rock, and no soil is present secondary - succession that begins following a disturbance, soil is present The difference is the presence of soil
What type of succession is occuring on mt. st. helens?
primary, no soil is present
What are the patters of nutrient, soil, diversity, and microclimate development during succession?
More nutrients, more soil, more diversity, microclimate is more moderate

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