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Psychology 10


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representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes. ex. Ivy league professor/ truck driver -- who likes poetry?
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
the way and issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
linguistic determination
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info that confirms one's preconceptions
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially one that has been successful in the past.
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conculstions seem valid or vice versa
telegraphic speech
child speaks like a telegram
babbling stage
stage in which the infant utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicated meaning
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
artifical intelligence
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processing
a mental image or best example of a category
the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
belief perserverance
clinging to oens intital conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the tendency to be more confident that correct-- to overestimate the accuaracy of one's beliefs and judgements
the inablilty to see a problem from a new perspective
computer neural networks
computer circuits that mimic the brains interconnected neural cells to perform taks like learning.

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