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EVS Exam 3


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water is a
polar molecule with a covalent bond
people spend
70-98% of time inside
properties of water
high freezing and boiling points, high heat capacity, high solutability, will filter UV radiation, high surface tension, less dense as a solid, will ionize to act as a buffer
supply of natural gas
200-300 years
chronic bronchitis
a disease in which the air passages (bronchi) of the lungs become permanently inflamed, causing breathlessness and chronic coughing
crude oil - 42 gallon barrel is a mix of
gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil (all is 85%) and other minor components
tidal energy
few spots with great enough tidal range
Clean Air Act of 1970
set the standard for modern air quality regulation/authorizes the EPA to se limits on the amount of specific air pollutants permitted everywhere in the US
pressurized fluidized bed combustion
under high pressure, complete combustion of coal occurs at low temperatures
cost of installing fluidized bed combustion
compares favorably with that of installing scrubbers
erosion of material
kills plants
sometimes farmers are drawing water from the Ogallala Aquifer
40 times faster than nature replaces it lowered water table more than 30m in some places
makes a very strong bond
oil supply
62 to 93 years
acid mine drainage
pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dangerous dissolved materials such as lead, arsenic, and cadmium wash from mines into nearby lakes and streams
97.5% waste
nuclear energy causes
problems with waste
nuclear energy use is
expected to decline
two types of opposition to securing future fossil fuel energy supplies
one is economic and one is environmental
world uses oil
86 million barrels/day
several large power plants
testing fluidized bed combustion in US and few small ones already use technology in commercial operation
grades of coal
anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat
energy resources
99% from sun
demand-side management
electric utilities help electricity consumers save energy
utilities sell calcium sulfate from scrubber sludge
to wallboard manufacturers
Energy Policy Act of 2005
focused largely on supporting energy research for fossil fuels, and subsidies continue, prompted in part by high gas prices in 2006
5 components to Bush's energy policy
1) modernize conservation 2) modernize our energy infrastructure 3) increase energy supplies 4) accelerate the protection and improvement of the environment 5) increase our nation's energy security
decrease of 3.8 million metric tons of CO2
represented a significant portion of US's total amound of sulfur dioxide emissions each year
reduce sulfur emissions associated with the combustion of coal and clean the power plants' exhaust
1/3 of all airborne mercury emissions are
currently produced by coal-burning electric power plants
US imports
55% of current supply
objective 2 of the US comprehensive energy policy
secure future fossil fuel energy supplies
US efficiency
84% of commercial energy is wasted (41% converted to heat - 43% wasted)
35% of oil
is average recovery from well
currently geothermal is
approx. 1% of electricity
Net energy ratio for gasoline
4.1 : 1
cons of hydropower
expensive, floods areas, fills with sediment, stops critter migration
scrubbers aka
desulfurization systems
tropopause is
the upper boundary of the troposphere
to dismantle an old nuclear power plant after it closes
fluidized-bed combustion
takes place at lower temperature than regular coal burning, and fewer nitrogen oxides are produced
incandescent lights are
5% efficient, 95% wasted
industrial smog
gray smog
by 2010 biomass is predicted to be
9% of US energy
clean coal technologies
new methods being developed for burning coal that won't contaminate air with sulfur oxides and will reduce NO production
supply of coal
215-1,125 years
water molecules are bound together by
hydrogen bonds and Van Der Waal's
utilities cut nitrogen oxide emissions by 2.6 million tons/year
out of 7.2 million tons/year total
Yucca Mountain
only candidate for permanent underground storage site for 70,000 tons of high-level radioactive wastes from commercially operated power plants
nation's energy policy
reflects the varied political views of the president, Congress, and the American public
indoor air pollution
fine particulates - up to 60% higher
temperature inversion
is when cool air near ground, warm air in upper atmosphere
mineral resources - non-renewable - metallic and non-metallic
energy is usually separate
sustainable water supply
irrigate more efficiently, water saving technology, improve water management
internal combustion engine
10% efficient
melt ore and remove impurities
currently wind is
1-2% of commercial energy
sulfate and nitrate salts
as solids
stratopause is
the upper boundary of the stratosphere
solid, liquid, gas biofuels
resource recovery
the process of removing any material - sulfur or metals, for example - from polluted emissions or solid waste and selling it as a marketable product
industrial smog is powered by
burning of coal or heavy oil and is common in Asia
15.7 million metric tons of CO2 in 1993
before reductions mandated by Clean Air Act Amendments went into effect
temperature inversions trap
polluntants and smog
environmental costs
should be weighed against benefits of using particular energy source when it is considered as a practical component of an energy policy
are 10 times higher indoors
sources of coal
US has 66% of known reserves
increasing water supplies
build dams and reservoirs, water transfer, use groundwater, desalination, use water more efficiently, import food
calcium sulfate neutralizes
acids in some soils and increases water-holding capacity
US takes
50 years to change energy sources
liquid biomass is
ethanol and methanol for gasoline additive
0 - 11 miles (0 - 5 miles at poles); contains 75 to 80% of mass of atmosphere; most circulation and weather
others use fly ash (chemical from chimney flues)
to make lightweight concrete that would sub for wood in building industry
99.99% waste
comercial energy use in US
92% from non-renewable sources
cons of desalination
location, expensive - not practical in LDC, produces large amounts of salt or brine
a form of government support (such as public financing or tax breaks) given to a business or institution to promote that group's activity; should be eliminated to encourage energy conservation
energy efficiency is
the % of energy input that does useful work
objective 4 of the US comprehensive energy policy
meet the 1st 3 objectives without further damage to the environment
higher temperatures
cause N and O to combine, forming NO
Nuclear Waste Policy Act
put burden of developing permanent sites for civilian and military radioactive wastes on the federal government and required the first site to be operational by 1998, also legally required US govt. to take ownership of nuclear wastes
pros of building dams and reservoirs
more water trapped, controls floods, recreation, food-fish
EPA estimates indoor air pollution is
#1 source of cancer risk
solidifying liquid waste into solid glass or ceramic logs
refining produces
polluted air and water
desulfurization systems cost
$50 to $80 per installed kilowatt, or about 10-15% of the construction costs of a coal-fired electric power plant
marginal or subeconomic
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
require nation's 111 dirtiest coal-burning power plants to cut sulfur dioxide emissions
nuclear energy has had
steady production since 1989
photochemcial smog
mix of primary and secondary pollutions formed under influence of sunlight; most common is ozone; 100+ also formed
by 2020 wind is predicted to be
10% of commercial energy
fluidized-bed combustion
clean coal technology in which crushed coal is mixed with limestone to neutralize the acidic sulfur compounds produced during combustion
fluidized bed combustion
more efficient than traditional coal burning because it produces more heat from given amount of coal and reduces CO2 emissions/unit of electricity produced
US energy use
4.6% of world population uses 24% of world commercial energy
thermopause to outer space is
the upper boundary
top indoor air pollutants are
smoke, formaldehyde, radon
pros of biomass
large supply, low cost, no net CO2 - already in system
gas - biogas
animal by product; decomposition of organics - trash or manure
combined heat and power
6% of all commercial energy is
the US is 16%
Use water more efficiently
typical water system - 65-70% lost; in US - 50% loss; 43% of irrigation water reaches crops, lost to evaporation, runoff, leaks; improve technology for water use; water is cheap
air pollution
50% of all toxic emissions
identification by
air photos, satellite, drill core, seismic
acid deposition causes decline in human health
respiratory problems
import food to reduce use
expensive to import
acid deposition causes
lower soil pH
pressurized fluidized bed combustion
is more expensive than regular, requires costly pressurized vessel
pros of desalination
increase water supply; reduce use of surface and groundwater
sources of natural gas
Russia and Kazakhstan, Iran, Quatar, US
lime scrubbers
a chemical spray of water and lime neutralizes acidic gases such as sulfur dioxide (which remains behind as a calcium sulfate sludge that becomes a disposal problem)
environmental impact
energy use - 90 million US home for steel industry
pros of wind
high net energy, moderate cost to build, cheap electricity, low pollution
indoor air pollution: common pollutants indoors
generally 2 to 5 times higher concentration inside
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
effective in 1994; considered "constitution for the ocean" that protects its resources
composition of troposphere
78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; 0.01 to 4% water; 0.8% argon; 0.037% carbon dioxide; <0.001% others
modern scrubbers remove
98% of the sulfur and 99% of the particulate matter in smokestacks
alternative fuels are
for the most part renewable
pros of water transfer - pipelines, tunnels, aqueducts
get water where needed
fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification and liquefication (considered in discussion of synfuels)
clean coal technologies
types of available freshwater
surface water - 33% is reliable runoff for use, groundwater - zones of aeration and saturation/water table, aquifer and aquaclude, currently we use 55% of reliable supply - most for irrigation
smoke and fog
formation by
rock forming processes
net energy ratio for biofuels
0.7 : 1
Convention on the Regulation of Antartic Mineral Resource Activities
required unanimous agreement for ratification so Antartica's minerals could be exploited
not considered b/c permanently encase the entire plant in concrete and tomb would have to remain intact for at least 1000 years
cons of geothermal are
few sites, associated air pollution, depleted easily
National Appliance Energy Conservation Act
sets national efficiency standards for fridges, freezers, washing machines, clothes dryers, dishwashers, room air conditioners, and ranges/ovens (microwaves
subsurface mining
shaft and gallery
saltwater intrusion
when you overdraw the groundwater and pull in seawater
coal burning contributes more air pollutants than
burning oil or natural gas
transportation consumes
25% of energy in US
increases 50%
fuel consumption when driven at 75 mph instead of 55 mph
clean coal technologies
have little effect on reducing CO2 emissions
50 - 75 miles
land disruption
500,000 US mines Reclamation only required for coal mines
increases 30%
fuel consumption when driven at 65 mph instead of 55 mph
nuclear energy
produces heat to make steam to turn turbine to make electricity
major reserves - OPEC
Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, U.A. Emirates
coal produces
62% of world electricity
bituminous coal contains
sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides (they form acids when they react with water)
acid deposition causes
pollution of surface water
compliance w/Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990
resulted in a total annual decrease of 3.8 million metric tons of CO2 nationwide
industries consume
42% of energy in US
water pollution
40% of US watersheds
in US, government has standards
for 6 pollutants
within industry,
metals -26%; chemicals -19%; fossil fuels -14%; paper -8%; stone, glass, clay -7%; food -5%; other industries -21%
by 2025 solar energy is predicted to be
25% of commercial energy
burning coal causes a more severe CO2 problem than burning other fossil fuels because
coal burning releases more CO2 per unit of heat produced
manganese nodules
small rocks the size of potatoes that contain manganese and other minerals, such as copper, cobalt, and nickel/are widespread on ocean floor particularly in Pacific
30 - 50 miles
processing - refining
80% of mined material on average is waste or tailings
hydropower as energy
large scale - big dams; small scale - little dams; pumped storage - reservoir
surface mining (90% of minerals and 60% of coal), open pit, dredging, area strip mine, contour strip mine, hilltop removal
buildings consume
33% of energy in US
nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, carbonic
as liquids
mesopause is
the upper boundary of the mesosphere
use of coal
21% of commerical energy is from coal
combustion of coal is responsible for
acid deposition
farmers apply
calcium sulfate as soil conditioner
acid deposition
a type of air pollution in which acid falls from the atmosphere to the surface as precipitation (acid precipitation) or as dry acid particles
objective 1 of the US comprehensive energy policy
increase energy efficiency and conservation
storage, entombment, and decommissioning
are three options that exist when a nuclear power plant is closed
mesosphere has
a thin atmosphere, temperature decreases
the production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel
comprehensive national energy strategy
could include the environmentally sound and responsible development of domestically produced fossil fuels, especially natural gas
solar energy
heating of homes and water, high temperature furnaces, electricity - solar cells
60% waste
sludge is currently disposed of
in landfills
Antartic Treaty
an international agreement in effect since 1961, limits activity in Antartica to peaceful uses such as scientific studies
Environmental Protection Protocol to the Antartic Treaty or Madrid Protocol
went into effect in 1990, includes a moratorium on mineral exploration and development for a minimum of 50 years/designates Antartica and its marine ecosystem as a "natural reserve dedicated to peace and society"
remove salt from seawater/distillation/reverse osmosis (most common) - pumping water through very fine filter
within transportation,
motor vehicles -74%; air -14%; marine -7%; rail -5%
outdoor air pollution major types
carbon oxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), suspended particulate matter (SPM), photochemical oxidants, radioactive material, hazardous air pollutants (HAP's)
biomass is ___% of US energy
4; crop residue, wood, manure
currently hydropower is
6% of commercial energy
steam or hot water
decomposed land plant material
improving efficiency
save $1 trillion/year; fluorescent lights (22% efficient); hybrid electric cars; fuel cells; building insulation
The Ogallala Aquifer
largest groundwater deposit in the world/farmers from High Plains depend on it/most livestock and plants come from here
within buildings,
heating, A/C, ventilation -64%; hot water heating -24%; lighting -12%
sulfur emissions
are removed as calcium sulfate and nitrogen oxide form because of low temperatures
is treated as a marketable product rather than as polluted emission
nationwide cap on SO2 emissions
from coal-burning power plants was imposed after 2000
additional 10 to 25%
of oil for secondary recovery
Tuscon, Miami, San Antonio, and Memphis
have municipal well fields and depend almost entirely on groundwater for drinking water
pros of hydropower
high net energy (approx. 80% efficient), cheap electricity, low pollution, flood control, water. recreation
equilibrium between CO2 in atmosphere, CO2 dissolved in ocean, and CO2 in organic matter
changes over long periods of time (thousands or millions of years)
In US - 51% of all drinking water is groundwater
96% in rural areas is wells, 20% in urban, 43% of all irrigation
amount of reserves depends on
actual and potential supply - rate of use, depletion time - 80% of reserve, reserve to production ratio, price factor - 1 in 10,000 site productive
mineral reserves
could be extracted from seawater
first air quality legislation
in the US the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 was
groupings of air pollutants
primary and secondary
composition of stratosphere
nearly same as troposphere, except no water; more ozone - filters out 95% of UV radiation; most ozone around tropopause and base of stratosphere - 14 -15 miles
alternate energy sources
solar, hydropower, tidal energy, wind, biomass, geothermal
deplete foreign oil reserves while prices are reasonable
save domestic supplies for the future
energy use trends
coal - down; oil and gas - up; nuclear - steady
99% waste
subsidence inversion
warm air moves in over cooler air
cons of groundwater
excessive removal-lowers water table and wells go dry, deplete aquifer, subsidence, saltwater intrusion, capture surface water, draw pollutants
objective 3 of the US comprehensive energy policy
develop alternative energy sources
acidification of lakes and streams
has resulted in the decline of aquatic animal populations and is linked to some of the forest decline documented worldwide
US's reasons for comprehensive energy policy
1) supply of fossil fuels is limited 2) production, transport, and use of fossil fuels pollute the environment 3) our heavy dependence on foreign oil makes us economically vulnerable
in coal reacts with calcium limestone to form calcium sulfate, which precipitates out, so it is removed from coal burning process/scrubbers not needed
combustion of coal releases
mercury into the air
uses lots of water and energy
oil is formed from
marine microorganisms
pros of groundwater
can be removed as needed - constant supply, not lost to evaporation, cheaper to develop
nuclear power plant
8% efficient
US trade deficit
causes economists to argue against view of developing future fossil fuel energy supplies
solid biomass
burn wood or manure
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
gave incentives for utility companies to convert to clean coal technologies
pros of solar energy
high net energy (approximately 90% efficient), non-polluting, low environmental impact, systems last 20-40 years
26 nations
are voting members of the Antartic Treaty
normal rain is
slightly acidic - pH = 5.6
currently biomass is
11% of world energy
currently solar is
approximately 1% of commercial energy
commercial energy use in world
82% from non-renewable sources
comprehensive energy policy
should provide a secure supply of energy, encourage us to use less energy, and protect the environment
thermosphere has
very thin atmosphere, temperature increases from direct heating from sun
11 - 30 miles
81% waste
no substantial mineral deposits
have been found in Antartica
utility company guards plant for 50 to 100 years, while some of the radioactive materials decay
wind farms or turbine fans
cons of solar energy
expensive, need light approximately 60% of time, maintenance costs
water shortage caused by
dry climate, drought, desiccation, water stress and water scarcity
acid deposition
solid and liquid particles
the 6 pollutants are
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, SPM, ozone, lead
cons of building dams and reservoirs
stop sediment movement (no new sediments for nutrients), may run river dry downstream, flood land-farmland, expensive
amount of irrigation in Texas
has declined 11%
opposed development and use of domestic fossil fuels because of environmental problems discussed
air pollution is the presence of one or more chemcial in the atmosphere that
cause harm to critters, plants, humans; cause harm to materials; alter climate
in 2nd phase of Clean Air Act Amendments
>200 additional power plants made SO2 cuts by the year 2000, resulting in total annual decrease of 10 million metric tons nationwide
US uses oil
22 million barrels/day
cons of water transfer
decrease water quality in source area, encourage waste
significantly decrease CO2 released
if improvements of fluidized bed combustion technology developed and were adopted widely then could
net energy ratio for natural gas
4.9 : 1
radiation inversion
air near ground cools faster at night; common in cities surrounded by mountains - LA, Denver
estimated cost of indoor air pollution
is $100 billion/year
emitted directly to atmospherein potentially harmful form
104 current
nuclear plants in US
a disease in which the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs become irreversibly distended, decreasing the efficiency of respiration and causing breathlessness and wheezy breathing
natural gas
mix of methane, ethane, propane, butane found with oil
polluted air is cleaned by
passing through scrubber and chemicals reacting with pollution to cause it to precipitate out
pros of geothermal are
high efficiency, low cost, low impact
primary that react with atmosphere or each other
cons of wind
need steady wind, need back up system for no wind, large land use, noise
cons of biomass
low efficiency, increases erosion, air pollution
hypothetical and speculative
water supplies
71% of planet surface cover, 97.4% is saltwater, 2.46% is ice or deep groundwater, 0.014% is available freshwater

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