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Respiratory System

Terms

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nasopharynx
uppermost portion of the tube just behind the nasal cavities
spirometer
instrument used to measure the amount of air exchanged in breathing
larynx
voice box located just below pharynx
thorax
chest
respiration
processes that result in the absorption, transport, and utilization or exchange of respiratory gases between an organism and its environment
partial pressure
pressure exterted by any one gas in a mixture of gases or in a liquid
carbaminohemoglobin
the compound formed when carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin
expiration
breathing out; expelling air from the lungs into the atmosphere
tonsils
masses of lymphoid tissue; protect against bacteria
epiglottis
lidlike cartilage overhanging entrance to larynx
bicarbonate
carbon dioxide is carried by the blood in this form; more than two-thirds
surfactant
substance covering the surface of the respiratory membrane inside the alveolus; reduces surface tension and prevents alveoli from collapsing
thyroid cartilage
largest cartilage of larynx; Adam's apple
pneumotaxic center
group of cells in the pons of the brain that affects the rate of respiration by inhibiting the inspiration center
cribiform plate
perforated portion of ethmoid bone that separates the nasal and cranial cavities
bronchial tree
trachea, 2 primary bronchi, and their many branches
cleft palate
facial deformity that is an X-linked inherited condition; when the palatine bones fail to unite completely
alveolus
"small cavity"; microscopic saclike dilations of terminal bronchioles; gas exchange in lungs occurs across the membranes here
respiratory membrane
single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the alveoli
laryngopharynx
lowest part of the pharynx
secondary bronchi
when primary bronchus enters lung on its respective side and immediately splits into smaller bronchioles
primary bronchi
two branches of trachea that enter lungs
inspiration
the act of drawing air into the lungs
oropharynx
portion of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth
oxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin combined with oxygen
alveolar duct
airway that branches from smallest bronchioles
upper respiratory tract
respiratory organs that aren't contained within the thorax; includes nasal cavity, pharynx, and associated structures
pulmonary ventilation
process that moves air in and out of the lungs
bronchiole
small branches of a bronchus
trachea
tube extending from larynx to bronchi
respiratory mucosa
mucus-covered membrane that lines tubes of the respiratory tree
tidal volume
amount of air breathed in and out with each breath

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