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Unit 4 respiration

Terms

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Right lung
is divided by fissures into 3 lobes; left lung divided into 2 lobes.
Spirogram
the tracing.
Pharynx
throat- carries air into the respiratory tract and carries foods and liquids into the digestive system. Ends below the esophagus.Opens into the larynx and vocal cords.
Lobes
division of the lungs- well defined part of an organ separated by boundaries.
External exchange
takes place in the lungs breathing O2 in and Co2 out. (Diffusion)
Pulmonary ventilation
movement of air into and out of the lungs, accomplished by breathing.
Oxygen O2
gas needed to break down nutrients completely for energy within the cell.
Changes produced in air as it comes in contact with lining of the nose
Foreign bodies, filtered out,Air is warmed by blood in mucous membrane,Air is moistened by liquid secretion.
10% CO2 is dissolved
in plasma and in the fluid within RBC. (carbonated beverages are an example of water in which Co2 is dissolved. )
Mediastinum
region between lungs and organs and vessels it contains. Middle section of thorax.
Vital capacity
the volume of air that can be expelled from lungs by maximum exhalation after maximum inhalaltion
Larynx is Made of
cartilage part of thyroid cartilage that protrudes the front of the neck. (adam's apple)
Inhalation/ inspiration
breathing in
Pharynx
last section opens into the larynx toward the anterior and into the esophagus toward the posterior.
Containd adenoids.
Tube connects into middle ear.
Hypocapnia
hyperventilation causes an increase in the oxygen level and a decrease in the Co2 level of the blood. Condition called hypocapnia.
Normal breathing range
is 12-20 per minute
In the bronchioles there is
NO cartilage at all- mostly smooth muscle- under control of autonomic (involuntary) nervous system.
Dyspnea
a subjective feeling of difficult labored breathing.
This surface action prevents
collapse of alveoli and eases expansion of lungs.
Surface tension within
alveoli aid in this return to resting size.
Surfactant
a substance that reduces the surface tension(pull) of the fluids that line the alveoli.
Glottis
space between vocal cords.- CONTAINS vocal cords (folds). somewhat open during normal breathing.
External exchange
movement of gases between the alveoli and the capillary blood in the lungs.
Internal exchange
Takes place between the blood and the tissues.
Diffusion
breathing O2 in and Co2 out. High concentration to low...exchange for O2
Epiglottis
little leaf shaped cartilage- lid covers larynx during swallowing. Upper surface of larynx.
Oxygen
does dissolve in water.
External exchange of gases
to the outside- process of inspiration + expiration- exchange of gases in the lungs. occurs in the lungs as oxygen diffuses from the air sacs into the blood and carbon dioxide Co2 diffuses out of the blood to be eliminated.
Air we breathe here has
21% oxygen; we use 5% of it;
Purpose of Trachea
is to conduct air between the larynx and the lungs.
Respiration involves
ventilation of the lungs, exchange of gases and their transport in the blood.
Total lung capacity
total volume of air that can be contained in the lungs after maximum inhalation.
Sinuses
cavity or channel
Hyperpena
abnormal increase in depth and rate of respiration. fast breathing
Gas exchange requires association
with circulatory system.
Lungs weigh
2.5 lbs each- light weight , airy, spongy, elastic
Conchae
shell shaped structures. Passageways -Form the side walls of the nasal cavity. Spiral shaped, expands for breathing-increase surface area- making area bigger-able to breath more air.
Residual volume
volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation
Bronchi
at inferior end the trachea divides into two primary or main stem bronchi.
Medulla
Part of brain - deals with breathing- respiratory center Controls rate, depth, and rhythm of our respirations
Cells are constantly using oxygen in
metabolism and obtaining fresh supplies by diffusion from blood.
Exchange done by process of
diffusion and osmosis
Respiratory system
an arrangement of spaces and passageways that conduct air into the lungs. Pathway for air between the atmosphere and the blood.
Expiratory reserve volume
additional amount that can be breathed out by force after a normal exhalation
Diaphragm
strong -dome shaped muscle attached to the body wall around the base of the rib cage.
Pseudostratified
falsely stratified.
Bronchi
enter lungs . right and left bronchus- bronchial tree-
Each closed sac
completely surrounds the lung except in the place where the bronchus and blood vessels enter the lung. (region known as root of the lung)
These subdivisions of the lung
correspond to the subdivisions of the bronchi as they branch through the lungs.
98.5% of oxygen that diffuses into the capillary blood in the lungs
binds to hemoglobin.
Inspiratory reserve volume
additional amount that can be breathed in by force after a normal inhalation.
Anoxia
total lack of oxygen.
Nasopharynx
superior portion, located immediately behind the nasal cavity.
Respirations
process by which oxygen is obtained from the environment and delivered to the cells.
Sac where
exchange takes place and then passes to capillary.
Cells have
cilia to filter impurities and create fluid movement within the conducting tubes.
Muscles involved with breathing
Intercostals muscles in between ribs, abdominal, diaphragm.
Vocal cords
vibrate as air flows over them from the lungs. Vibrate when exhale
Blood is
Never totally depleted of oxygen.
Law of physics
when the volume of a given amount of gas increases the pressure of the gas decreases.
Exhalation/ expiration
breathing out
Ventral-Laryngeal pharynx
air passage way toward the front of laryngeal pharynx
Trachea has
Cartilages U shaped or C shaped, horseshoe shaped. Framework of cartilage; keeps it open.Rings of cartilage. OPEN at the back for expansion during swallowing.
inferior portion of nasal septum
formed by vomer.
Level of Co2
makes us breathe.
Parietal pleura
attached to chest wall-
Cilia
hairlike processes
Tachypnea
an excessive rate of breathing that may be normal as in exercise.
Bronchi contain small bits of
cartilage which give firmness to their walls and hold the passageways open so air can pass in and out.
Tidal volume
amount of air moved into or out of lungs in quiet relaxed breathing.
Regulation depends on
respiratory control center located in medulla and pons of the brain stem.
Cyanosis
a bluish color of skin and mucous membranes caused by an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood.
Compliance is decreased
when lungs resist expansion.
Hyperventilation
increased O2 and Low Co2
Breathing out
diaphragm rises up
Euchstatian tube
equalizes pressure located in containd adenoids.
Dorsal-laryngeal pharynx
food passage way toward the back of
Cellular respiration
oxygen is taken into a cell and used in the breakdown of nutrients with the release of energy.Co2 is waste product of cellular respiration.
Atelectasis
death or hardening of an area.
Co2 diffuses
from cells into the blood and is transported to the lungs 3 ways:
Smallest is called
bronchioles
Alveoli
smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree.
Main functions of respiration
to eliminate Co2, supply oxygen to red cells and circulation.
Larynx
- Voicebox - located between the pharynx and trachea.
Quiet breathing
diaphragm accounts for most of increase in thoracic volume.
On medial side lung
left lung has an indentation that accommodates the heart.
CNS controls
fundamental respiratory pattern.
Frontal sinus
forehead
Functional unit of alveoli
350 mill per lung.
Total hemoglobin in red cells
holds 97% saturated with oxygen ( maximum amount of oxygen it can hold.)
Capacity
lung capacity is a sum of volumes.
Forced exhalation
intercoastal muscles contract, abdominal wall contracts.
Carbon dioxide CO2
gaseous waste product of breathing.
Orthopnea
refers to a difficulty in breathing that is relieved by sitting in an upright position, either against pillows in bed or in a chair.
Plueral space
contains thin film of fluid that lubricates the membranes.
Spirometer
instrument for recording lung volumes.
Pleura consist of
serous membrane
Relative concentrations of a gas
on the two sides of a membrane determine the direction of diffusion.
mediastinum
the space between the lungs including the esophagus, trachea, and lymph nodes.
Cheyne-stokes respirations
periods of apnea, and hyperventilation.
15% Co2 is combined
with the protein portion of hemoglobin and plasma proteins.
Pulmonary ventilation
exchange of air between the atmosphere and the air sacs(aveoli) of the lungs.Accomplished by breathing.
Functions of the Nose
removes foreign particles and pathogens. (bacteria), moistens the air and warms,has smell receptors.
Hemoglobin molecule
is a large protein- with 4 small heme portions- each one can bind one molecule of oxygen.
Eupnea
normal breathing- respirations
Functions of Glottis
Keeps food out of air passage,Breathing- open,Swallow- epiglottis closes over it.
Lung tissues are elastic and
return to original size during exhalation.
Purpose of fluid in pluera
is for the surfaces slide easily on each other but strongly resist separation,Helps lungs move and enlarge effortlessly in response to changes in the thoracic volume that occur during breathing.
circulating blood needed to transport
oxygen to cells and transport carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
Laryngeal pharynx
most inferior portion- vocal cords make sounds 2 spaces- aids in speech.
Nasal Septum
divides into 2 nostrils-cartilage and very thin bones.2 nasal cavities are separated from each other by this partition.
Hilum
notch where each bronchus enters the lungs at a notch or depression.Blood vessels and nerves connect with the lung in this region.
Respiratory tract is lined with
Mucous membrane
Lining of air passageways
respiratory tract lined with epithelium- simple columnar epithelium.
75% Co2 is transported as
ion, known as bicarbonate ion, which is formed when carbon dioxide undergoes a chemical change after it dissolves in blood fluids.
Hypoventilation
insufficient amout of O2
Tonsil
mass of lymphoid tissue is region of pharynx
Anterior section of septum is made of
hyaline cartilage.
Deoxygenated blood
is 70% saturated with oxygen.
Nasal septum
dividing wall between chamber of nasal cavity. Cartilage
Cilia
drive impurities toward the throat, where they can be swallowed or eliminated by coughing or sneezing or blowing nose.
Functional residual capacity
the amount of air remaining in the lungs after normal exhalation.
As thoracic cavity increases in size
gas pressure within the cavity decreases.
Superior portion formed by
thin plate of ethmoid bone that extends downward
If foreign body inhaled is
more likely to go into right lung.
Carbon Monoxide
causes serious reduction in the bloods ability to carry oxygen.
Hypoxia
lower than normal oxygen level in the tissues.
Sinuses
small cavities- hollow, lined with mucous membrane. Inbedded into the skull; 4 pairs- enter into nasal cavities.
2 lungs
set side by side In thoracic cavity.
Lungs
Organs in which gas diffusion takes place through the extremely thin, delicate lung tissue.
Between the lungs are
the heart and great blood vessels and other organs of the mediastinum
Suffication
cessation of respiration; often a result of mechanical blockage.
When volume decreases
pressure increases.
Barrier that separates alveolar air from the blood is composed of
alveolar wall and the capillary wall. ( thin, moist)
Inhalation (inspiration)
drawing of air into the lungs,Active phase of breathing,Respiratory muscles contract to enlarge thoracic cavity.
Voice
Variations in length and tension and distances between them regulates pitch of sound.
Tachypnea
rapid breathing Over 20
maxillary sinus
(cheeks either side of nose)
Respiratory circuit
Bronchus- broncholi- Aviolar ducts,capillaries - aveolis diffusion.
Palate
Internal portion lies above the roof of the mouth ( floor of nasal cavity)
Hypopnea
decrease in depth and rate of breathing. Low
Nasal cavities
filters, moistens and warms, lined with cilia and mucous membrane.
Compliance
the ease which one can expand the lungs and thorax.
Apnea
temporary cessation of breathing.
Co2 is produced
continuously in the tissues as a byproduct of metabolism.
sphenoid sinus
(behind ethmoind),
Internal exchange
takes place in the capillaries.
Expired air
16% oxygen, 3.5% Co2
Internal exchange of gases
cellular- inside- exchange of gases between tissue cells and capillaries. which occurs in the tissues as oxygen diffuses from the blood to the cells.
Compliance
ease with which one can expand the lungs and thorax.
What stimulates breathing
amount of Co2- medulla is stimulated by rising amount of carbon dioxide in our blood.
In lungs blood passes
through the capillaries around the alveoli, where gas exchange takes place.
Trachea
(windpipe) tube that extends from inferior edge of the larynx to the upper part of the chest superior to the heart.
Function of Sinuses
give Resonance to our voices,Sinuses communicate with the nasal cavities, Highly susceptible to infection.
Pleura
serous membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs.
Pulmonary circuit
brings blood to and from the lungs.
Hypoxemia
lower than normal oxygen level in arterial blood
Phrenic nerve
for breathing ; big nerve; has a lot of tributaries.
Hypercapnis
raised Co2 level in blood.
Breathing in
diaphragm flattens
Trachea is located
Anterior - ventral to espophagus
Bradypnea
slow breathing - below 12
Insipired air
21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide
Subdivisions:
Bronchus Subdivide into the broncials- alveilor duct- subdivision of bronchial tubes- then into aveloi (millions in lungs) - air sacs end of duct.
Oropharynx-
middle section, located posterior to mouth,Contains tonsils; behind the mouth.
Apnea
a temporary cessation of breathing. Short periods of apnea occur during sleep.
Pleura Space
in between plura and lungs are filled with liquid.
Moisture is important because
oxygen and carbon dioxide must go into solution before they can diffuse across the membrane.
Surfactant
Air sacs do not completely empty
We breathe out
16% of Co2
Most of the time we breathe
without thinking and the respiratory center is in control.
Visceral pleura
attached to surface of organ ( lung)
Plueracy
infection in this area.
Pleura
2- continuous doubled sac covers each lung. lining of the lungs.
Regulates flow of air
by constricting and relaxation
The respiratory center
in the brain stem WILL override the voluntary desire not to breath and breathing will resume.
The diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles are
voluntary. - can be regulated consciously by messages from the cerebral cortex.
Ethmoid
above of forhead; between the eyes
Lungs Extend from
just above clavical to the diaphragm.
Exhalation (expiration)
expulsion of air from the lungs,Passive phase of breathing.,Respiratory muscles relax (allows ribs and diaphragm to return to normal position)
Gas concentrations are expressed as pressure
in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) as is Blood Pressure.
Phrenic nerve
breathing nerve (branch of vegas nerve)
Adenoids
lymphoid tissue; having appearance of gland. Pharayngeal tonsils
Each primary bronchus enters the lung at
the hilum, and immediately subdivide, bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, which enters the lobes of the lung (bronchial tree) bronchi subdivide again and again becoming progressively smaller as they branch through lung tissue.
Vocal cords
fiberous bands stretch across larynx; produce voice
1.5% of oxygen in blood is
carried in solution in the plasma.

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