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Euro 1815-171-JB

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Seven Weeks War
aka Austro-Prussian War (1866) This war resulted from Bismarck wanting to isolate Austria from German affairs
Zollverein
A tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy. Also helps build German nationalism, advocated by Friedrich List.
Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
Corn Laws
Revised in 1815 these laws didn't allow for importing of cheap grain, this gave way to great anger towards the landed aristocracy who imposed them for their own good. Their repeal signified the end of dominance by the landed nobility
Poor Law
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers. Forced them into workhouses.
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
Lord Byron
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
Napoleon III
Napoleon I's nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism
John Stuart Mill
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
William Gladstone
One of Britain's great liberal leaders, he favored expanding political rights for British men. He served several times during the mid to late 1800s.
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation.
People's Charter
1838. Demanded by the Chartists, it called for: 1) Universal adult male suffrage 2) The secret ballot 3) Abolition of Property requirements for members of Parliament 4) salaries for Parliament members 5) equal electoral districts 6)annual parliaments (the only one not eventually accomplished)
Abraham Darby
Used coal to smelt iron from its ore.
Louis Phillipe
became known as the "citizen king" because he dressed and acted like a member of the middle class. He secretly favored the wealthy. He refused to allow working class citizens more voting rights. He was overthrown in the Revolution of 1848
David Ricardo
"Iron Law of Wages"-wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist-coldly spelled out the pessimistic implications of Malthus's thought-his iron law of wages stated that because of the pressure of pop. growth, wages would always sin to subsistence level. With more food came more children, neverending cycle.
Nicholas I
(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeced Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.
Decembrist Revolt
place in Russia on December 14 1825, Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
Louis Blanc
journalist who advocated the right to work, thought governments should guarentee emplyment.
Combination Acts
in 1799 and 1800 it outlawed associations of workers. This failed to prevent the formation of trade unions.
Francis Joseph
leader of Austria and King of Hungary; he helps create and refrom new type of country called Austria-Hungary
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences. Predicted violent proletariat revolution, and then government would eventually wither away
Luddite
one of the 19th century English workmen who destroyed labor-saving machinery that they thought would cause unemployment
Kulturkampf
(cultural struggles) An exetreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870's in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.
Engels
developed communist theory with Karl Marx. Co-wrote the Communist Manifesto
Ems dispatch
A telegram edited by Bismark to insult the French people while making it sound as though they had insulted the Prussians. This led to the Franco-Prussian wars which Prussia won handily and violently. The French people never forgave the Prussians, setting the stage for World War I
Frankfurt Parliament
Unsuccessful attempt to unify Germany. Participants argued amongst themselves too much
Utopian Socialism
used by later socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained.
Great Reform Bill
Slightly expanded electorate and reduced rotten boroughs. Shows that gradual political reform is possible
Benjamin Disraeli
leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
scientific socialism
The term Marx and Engels used to stress to that their ideology was based on an analysis of class conflict
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
John Kay
In the early eighteenth century, invented the flying shuttle, which enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand.
William I
was Kaiser of Prussia, made Otto von Bismarck a chancellor. Hires Bismarck and becomes king of all of Germany.
James Hargreaves
a gifted carpenter invented the cotton-spinning Jenny about 1765. The spinning Jenny was simple and inexpensive. In early models, from six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage, and each spindle spun a fine, slender thread. The woman moved the carriage back and forth with one hand and urned a wheel to supply power with the other.
cottage industry
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Joseph de Maistre
French; in favor of the hereditary absolute monarchy to maintain order, said that the first servant of the crown should be the executioner
July Ordinances
edicts that Charles X issued; demolished the Charter, censored the press, reduced the electorate
July Revolution
overthrow of King Charles X (sought to impose absolutism by rolling back the constitutional monarchy)-radical revolt in Paris forced Charles to abdicate
The Communist Manifesto
Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels-basis of Socialism.
Thomas Malthus
English clergyman and economist, 1766-1834, wrote AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION, inspired both Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace in their seperate discoveries of the principle of natural selection, argued that human population size increases exponentially while food supplies remain relatively stable. Catastrophes check pop. growth and advocates smaller families
Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, constitutions, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. (713)
Chartism
A Political reform movement, that favored universal man sufferage and secret ballots
Jeremy Bentham
creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Used the Pain-Pleasure litmus test, rather than ideology
Danish War
in 1864 after three months of fighting denmark surrendered to prussia and austria. they were forced to give up two duchies, prussia wouuld administer schleswig and austria would administer holstein.
Das Kapital
Karl Marx's book that said all social classes should end and everyone should be equal with equal ownership of businesses
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Factory Act
1833 Created factory workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
Queen Victoria
British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement
Nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, people's identities are defined by their nation and the nation should have first priority in loyalties
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Edmund Burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Charles X
set out to restore the absolute monarchy with the help of the ultraroyalists. Tried to repay nobles for lands lost during the revolution, but the liberals in teh legislative assemly opposed him. Eventually, he issued the July Ordinances.
June Days
A revolt during the month of June as a result of the abolishment of national workshops. This event ended the liberal capitalist and the radical socialists tension ending in victory for liberalism and Capitalism.-Also with the June Days it led to having a new constitution demanding a strong executive, which led to the rise of Louis Napoleon.
Frederick William IV
(1840-1861) Pressured by liberals who called for a constitutional monarchy, he allowed officials to draw up a constitution that would also unify Germany. Meeting in Frankfurt the delegates quickly got into a debate with Denmark over who controlled Schleig and Holstein. Denmark invaded these provinces and the Germans there revolted. The assembly at Frankfurt called on the Prussian military to take action. In March of 1849 the assembly completed its drawing up of the national German constitution, but the reaction had been so successful everywhere else Fredrick William revoked it and set back up the monarchy. Austria and Russia frightened by the German unification forced Prussia to un-unify Germany and reset up the confederation.
Mazzini
Italian idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
The Crimean War
France & Great Britain vs. Russia, most of the fighting was in the Crimean region, utter military incompetence, destroyed the Concert of Europe
Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
Adam Smith
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
Charles Fourier
lonely, saintly man with a tenuous hold on reality, envisaged a socialist utopia of mathematically precise, self-sufficient communities-early proponent of the total emancipation of women-believed marriages were another kind of prostitution
Conservatism
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivers "blood and iron" speech.
Robert Owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
Pope Pius IX
support for unification gave way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848-Syllabus of Errors: strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty
Factors of British Industrialization
1) political stability b)religious toleration c)expanding population d)Agricultural Revolution e)Enclosure Act f)increase in capital and central bank g)overseas trade h) accessible rivers and canals i) availability of coal an iron
Henri de Saint Simon
Utopian socialist who wanted a society led by intellectuals providing for the welfare of the lowest classes
Grimm Brothers
collected and published local German fairy tales, work is example of Romantic German nationalism

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