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History: China

This is for the pre-world 1750, junior, test on china. ITs on 11/25/08....Thats all for now.

Terms

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Han
in china the people refer to themselves as the Han
Confucius (the person)
(551BC-478BC) Philosphy- not religion, book "The Analects", strict roles in society(stable society)
Zhou
(prounced Joe)(1100BC-250BC) dynastic cycle-mandate of heaven, Confucius was a part of this time, preform a civil service exam, learned how to use iron, created the catapult and china's first cavalry, population grew and new farming techniques leading to growth of cities and building canals and roads. Chopsticks...
Song
Shang Zhou Qin Han, Sui Tang Song, Yvan Ming Ching Rebuplic, Mao Zedong
Isolation
Gobi desert on the west, Himalayas to the south, and many other hills, deserts, mountains make it hard to navagate.
Geography
Huang He(yellow river) original civilization found here, Chang Jiang (long river), the HH has lots of yellow silt from desert called loess, HH refered to as china's sorrow for flooding and the river bottom being above see level
Shang(cont.)
ruled by monarchy, capital city of Anyang where the kings were surrounded by a court(gathering of wealthy nobles), who performed rituals intended to strengthen the kingdomand keep it safe. King appointed governors to rule distrant partrs of the kingdom, a large army at his disposal. Shang had alot of time and enjoyed hunting and collecting pricey bronze or jade pieces.
Confucius(teachings)
Social class system: 1. Educated, 2. Peasants-feed everyone, 3. Craftsmen, 4. Merchants. YOU CAN MOVE. Went for civil service exam so only well educated could work for the gov't.
Daoism
unlike confucianism(which focusses on improving society) daoism encourages people to retreat from the lawas of society and yield to the laws of heaven. At the heart is Dao, the way. Dao is the limitless force that is part of all creation and through dao all things in nature are connected, finding place in nature=harmony with universe, embraced chinese notion of yin and yang (male female, black white) they exist without eachother, important to remain balanced.
Confucianism
people should treat one another humanely, express love and respect for others by practicing traditional manners and ritual, love disapeared he believed this was the cause of the violence. Rulers treat subjects fairly, reward ruler with respect and loyalty, respect elders, duty of all educated people to devote themselves to public service, Influencial in China, led to emporers choosing advisors based on merit rather then birth
Beginnings of Civilization
started in the Huang He valley, where people started growing crops about 9,000 years ago. This society was said to be ruled by the Xia dynasty, but no evidence has been found so they start at the Shang.
Zhou(cont.)
Zhou took over from the Shang. They had two periods one called Western Zhou wchihc was peaceful during which cultural achievements happened. They moved east when conflict arose starting the Eastern Zhou period. Worried not they would not be accepted by the people so they came up with mandate of heaven.
Fall of Zhou
clan leaders within china rose agianst the king, as time passed more and ore local leaders turned agianst the Zhou, this was known as the warring states period, nobles fought for power and eventually the Zhou was overthrown by the Qin.
Mandate of heaven
gods would support a just ruler, but hey would not allow anyone corrupt to hold power, Shang lost the gods favour, explain the dynastic cycle
Oracle Bones
They asked their ancestors for advice through oracle bones(inscribed bits of anmal bone/turtle shell) They would ask the question on the shell and applied hot metal the tho outside resulting in cracking which could be read bh priests to learn the answer
Shang royal tombs
Much of what we know comes from studying royal tombsand drawing conclusions about Shang religious beliefs. Shang tombs had valuable items(jade or bronze) and each tomb had the remains of 100eds of sacrificed prisoners of war who were buried with the ruler, Shang believe in afterlife. They worshiped their ancestors and tried to make them happy in the afterlife. Steam from ritual meals was said to nourish the ancestor's spirits. (CONT>)
Qin
(221BC-202BC) 1st empire, 1st to unify China-N+S, Source our word China, Started the Great Wall of China, Tomb at Xian: Terra cotta warriors: 1000s set up as army, found 1970's, all are different, little city with mercury rivers, it was forgotten about
Han
(202BC-220AD) Instituted the civil service system established for jobs in the gov't, Open the silk road: the trade rout-over land thru Asia to constantinople then on to Europe, the silk road continues into till 15th centuray AD
Shang
(1500BC-1100BC) Domestication of pigs + silk, China:development of porcelin, Writing style: one symbol pe word, can pronounce it in any way, works with any dialect-this unifies country, to be literate you need to know at least 10,000 characters, also great with working with bronze, were able to build huge, stable tombs, astronomers created a precise calender based on the cycles of the moon, may have created the first money system
Daoism(cont)
origins aren't clear thought to be from Laozi. He was among the first people in china to write about daoist beliefs(book Dao De Jing). less influencial then confucianism the idea of balance has been a concpet in china largely because of Daoist teaching, led its followers to work for the preservation and protection of the natural environment.
Han(civil service)
instituted the civil service system established for jobs in the gov't, best brightest work for gov't-must pass 3 day exam, job open to any male in society-had to pay for their own education.

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