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USC MUSC110 Final

Terms

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Notable composers of Broadway musicals and film score
Andrew Lloyd Webber, broadway; John Williams, film score
Definition of serialism?
Developed by Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). A compositional technique in which tone-rows with all twelve tones of the chormatic scale are used.
Composers associated with experimental music?
John Cage
Who are the Impressionist painters?
Pablo Picasso, Wassilly Kandisky; abstract art, Salvador Dali, Henri Matisse
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
influenced by Stravinsky/jazz/neoclassicism, his music can be described as open and spacious sounding
lied
German Art Song (Piano & Voice)
George Gershwin, William Grant Still
influenced by blues/jazz
chance music
The order of movements or sections is indeterminate or left up to the performer.
Definition of neoclassicism?
Musical style inspired by the forms and styles of 18th century music
program music
Intrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea or scene
Nationalism
Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends and other material in a composition to associate it with the composer's homeland; characteristic in Romantic music.
Main Composers of Impressionalism?
Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel
Jazz 32 bar song form
AABA
Charles Ives (1874-1954)
Used fragmented military/patriotic/hymn tunes along with polytonalities, polyrhythms, and polymeters in his music
Sprechstimme
Speech-Voice in German - a style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing, used by Schoenberg.
Romanticism Radicals
Wagnerians: Opted for emotion over formal control often loose and vague forms with wandering tonality. relied increasingly on extra-musical associations (Wagner, R. Strauss, Liszt)
What is a big band
Jazz bands of 10 or more musicians
leitmotif
a motive or melody associated with a particular character or idea (i.e. Darth Vador, Star Wars)
Blues
Term referring both to a style of performance and to a form; an early source of jazz, characterized by flatted or "blue" notes in the scale.
Scott Joplin
ragtime/cakewalk music
Why did some composers shift to neoclassicism?
Many Russian composers where pressured into Neoclassicism.
Bebop Musicians
Charlie 'Bird' Parker (alto sax) & Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet)
Main composers of the Romanticism period.
(late) Beethoven, Brahms, Mendelssohn, Mahler, Schumann (Robert and Clara), Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, R. Strauss
How do composers write music that is nationalistic?
Folk & Patriotic melodies/harmonies; Instruments that might be indigenous to that area; Forms were loose, often used sections relying on descriptions, stories and/or tales; Contrasting sections, several repeated idea, very little thematic development.
Main opera composers of the Romanticism period.
Verdi, Puccini, Wagner, Weber
Jazz Styles
Dixieland, Swing, Bebop, Cool jazz, Funk, Fusion, Free jazz
The Mighty Five (Russian Nationalist Composers)
N. Rimsky-Korsakov, Modest Mussorgsky, Alexander Borodin, Cesa Cui, Mily Balakirev
Gesamtkunstwerk
total art work
What is Impressionism?
Musical style that stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity.
John Philip Sousa
marches
music drama
Wagner's term for his German operas
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
Russian; Experimental Music; Collaborations with Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes dance company; The ballet Rite of Spring, Riot ensuing at the premiere, Use of polytonalities/polyrhythms/polymeters, etc.
12 bar blues form
Verse, Verse, Hook (also AAB)
General characteristics of 20th century music
Dissonant, complex, assymmetrical, objective, satirical, experimental
Characteristics of Romantic music?
Composers opted for extreme expression/emotion in music over strict adherence to Classical forms.
Important Social Movements During the Romanticism period.
Composers writing for themselves and audience - not a patron, evolution of public concerts/establishment or orchestral societies, Mendelssohn's revival of Baroque music.
Bebop
Complex jazz style, usually for small groups, meant for active listening rather than dancing
Musical
type of American theater created to entertain through fusion of a dramatic script, acting, and spoken dialogue with music, singing and dancing.
Origin of Blues
slaves' songs: field hollers, working songs, street cries
musique concrete
Composer can record everyday sounds & manipulate them using magnetic tape; Different than electric music because it uses everyday sounds.
Dixieland jazz
originating in New Orleans, used instruments that could be marched with outside
Atonal Music and the 20th Century
Influence of the World Wars (most composers were fighting; those who were writing had limited resources in regards to musicians); Art Redefined: Picasso and Kandinsky (distorted images and abstract art)
minimalism
Composer takes one simple idea & repeasts it over and over with heavy subtile changes to rythme or notes - then repeated - etc...
Jazz
Derived from elements of African rhythms/singing and European forms/harmonies
Where was Impressionism concentrated?
Flourished in France 1890-1920
tone poem/symphonic poem
a progamatic composition for orchestra in one movement
Peter I. Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
Ballads include: Nutcracker, Swan Lake, folk dances from other countried such as China and Middle East. "Musical Fireworks", 1812 Overture. Considered an outsider by The Mighty Five because he had to much European influence.
Jazz Rhythm Section
Made up of piano, double bass, drum set/percussion (sometimes guitar)
Romanticism Traditionals
Brahmsians: formal control still mattered, tonality and form should still be recognizable (Brahms, Schumann, Schubert, Mendelssohn)

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