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AP Euro; 8 The Age of Expansion and the Rise of Monarchical States

1415-Early 1700's

A selection of the bolded terms in the 2008 Princeton Review.

Chapter 8- AP Euro; 8 The Age of Expansion and the Rise of Monarchical States


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triennial act
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
in 1488, sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa
Spanish Inquisition
Brutal campaign led by Roman Catholic Church from 1481 to 1834 to punish nonbelievers including Jews and Muslims
Thirty Years War
started as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in HRE. France got involved against the H.R. Emperor for political reasons. Immensely destructive. 1618-1648
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
James II
Catholic, the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland; overthrown in 1688 (1633-1701)
Treaty of Utrecht
1713; agreement that left Bourbon on throne of Spain but the same monarch cannot rule both France and Spain
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
Grand Remonstrance
list of 204 parliamentary grievances against Charles I
War of the Three Henrys
(1585-1589) French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Characteristics of new nation-states
1. Growing Efficient Bureaucracy (intendants, limiting corruption, bourgeoisie) 2. Standing Army (revolution in warfare, decline of mounted knight, huge costs); 3. Growing Taxation ( Peasants bore burden, Price Revolution, Armies)
series of violent uprisings during the minority of Louis XIV triggered by oppressive taxation of the common people, ambitions of the nobles, and efforts of the parlement of Paris (highest French judicial body) to check the authority of the crown; the last attempt of the French nobility to resist the king by arms.
Navigation Act
Series of laws passed by England that strictly controlled the colonists trade.
Long Parliament
(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament
A large estate or plantation in Spanish-speaking countries
War of Spanish Succesion
occured when charles II left the spanish crown to Louis XIV's grandson which split spain, Louis suffered major defeats and finally ended it with the Peace of Utrecht
Charles VIII
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
Dutch Protestant theologian who founded Arminianism which opposed the absolute predestinarianism of John Calvin (1559-1609)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world (1480-1521)
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Edict of Restitution
Imperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.
da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, which led to Portuguese control of the spice trade
Spanish Armada
mightiest naval force the world had ever seen, yet English ships that were smaller and swifter won the battle
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
Poor Law
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Glorious Revolution
synonymous with English Revolution, A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
divine rights
Monarch enjoyed god given power, nothing but god is higher than the king
Duke of Sully
Henry IV's devout protestant chief minister, combined indirect taxes on salt, sales, transit an leased their collection to financiers, revenues increased b/c of revival of trade, paid for the Company for Trade with the Indies, restored public order in France, laid foundations of eco prosperity
James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; alienated Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings
The Act of Toleration
1689 A compromise bill granted the right of public worship to nonconformist Protestants
English Renaissance
Age of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Edmund Spenser, Elizabethan reign provided stability
influential Dutch artist that painted the "Night Watch" (1606-1669)
landowners of substantial property, social standing, and leisure, but not titled nobility.
the royal family that ruled Scotland from 1371-1603 and ruled England and Scotland from 1603 to 1649 and again from 1660 to 1714, they could not instate French style absolutism over Parliament
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage uniting Aragon and Castile. Together carried out Reconquista and Inquisition of Spain.
English Revolution
the revolution against James II there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
The Act of Union
1701, political unification of England and Scotland to form Great Britain, uneasy relationship
Golden Bull
document gave right to seven people to elect the H.R.E.
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715, "The Sun King", an absolute monarch that built up France's internal strength through finance and military, strengthened army and connected france through trades routes, catholic religiion and the capital Versailles and foreign expansion during his reign
The Act of Settlement
1701, English Crown will pass to the protestant House of Hanover in Germany
Treaty of Lodi
This created an alliance in Italy between Milan, Naples, and Florence vs. the Papal States and Venice. It was is in effect from 1454 and 1494. Ultimately fails.
Henry of Navarre
became Henry IV and started the Bourbon dynasty, converted to Catholicism to save his dynasty, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Price Revolution
a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
Italian religious and political reformer, a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
Petition of Rights
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
Francis I
French king of the Valois dynasty who was involved in the Italian wars, was defeated by Charles I
in England in the 1700s, the process of taking over and fencing off public lands
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Murder of French Huguenots in Paris by Catholics at wedding of Henry of Navarre's wedding
The Bill of Rights
1689 Forbade the use of royal prerogative rights. The Monarchy cannot pass into hands of a Catholic
Jan Vermeer
Dutch painter renowned for his use of light and painted everyday scenes (1632-1675)
"The Prince", exalts the supreme power of the gov. (prince) over the people, since the people are naturally selfish; "It's better to be feared than to be loved"
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms
Test Act
1673-excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England form voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, ore assembling for meetings
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Peace of Westphalia
1648. Sovereignty of German Princes recognized, Ended Religious issues in Europe, ended 30 years war
Wars of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Cardinal Mazarin
Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV.
Short Parliament
refused to consider war funds unless the king would redress political and religious grievances
El Greco
Spanish artist who painted religious subjects with exquisite drama and emotion
The Mutiny Act
1689 authorized martial law to govern army, had to be renewed annually, so parliament had to be called
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
Cardinal Richelieu
King Louis XIII was a weak ruler and Richelieu filled the void, more or less running the empire via his advice to the king. A clever politician and strategist, Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a great European power
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Responsible for the superiority of Portugal's navy, wanted to explore the west coast of Africa, some of his mariners went as far as Cape Verde

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