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Terms and Names 1-8


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Scientific Method
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
"the politics of reality"—the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism.
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreaks of revolutions.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis XIV's minister of finance who assisted him to achieve his goals of having economic, political, and cultural brilliance.
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
Maria Theresa
Empress of Austria, the daughter of Charles VI. She cared more for the peasants' well being than most rulers. She limited the amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do.
Isaac Newton
an English scientist who created the laws of motion and discovered gravity. He also created Calculus.
a group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions.
Peninsular War
a conflict lasting from 1808 to 1813 in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain.
Gutenberg Bible
the first full sized book printed with movable type and a printing press
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
Glorious Revolution
the bloodless overthrow of the English King James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
real name was François Marie Arouef and he published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, history, fiction, and drama; he fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech.
a member of a Protestant church founded on the principles of the Reformation.
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
to cancel or put an end to
Klemens von Metternich
Austria's foreign minister who had immense influence on European politics.
in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people.
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country.
Divine right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment.
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan general who helped the Puritans win the Civil war and became the military dictator of England.
Council of Trent
a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
state an independent nation of people having a common culture and identity.
a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain.
Tokugawa Shogunate
a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
a period of European history lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far reaching changes in art, learning and views of the world.
The people of the region Manchuria who invaded China in 1644
Jean Jacques Rousseau
a philosophe who believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains".
Napoleon Bonaparte
a military genius who seized power in France.
Coup d'état
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation.
Hongwu's son
Maximilien Robespierre
a leader who slowly gathered control in France after the beheading of Louis XVI.
Hundred Days
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming emperor of France.
a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.
one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
Otto von Bismack
Wilhem I's prime minister. He was the master of realpolitik.
John Locke
a philosopher who believed that people can learn from experience and improve themselves and believed that all people are born free and equal with three natural rights: life, liberty and property.
Galileo Galilei
a scientist who discovered the law of the pendulum, objects fall at the same speed, built his own telescope and his observations supported the theories of Copernicus. The church got angry and forced Galileo to recant his discoveries and beliefs.
Printing press
a machine for reproducing written material by pressing paper against arrangements of inked type
a member of a Protestant Church governed by elders (Presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
a government run public school in France.
Balance of power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
the belief that one's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history.
an early 19th century movement in the art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society.
the landowning nobles of Russia.
War of the Spanish Succession
a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
Ming Dynasty
A Chinese Dynasty that ruled from 1368 to 1644
Johannes Kepler
a brilliant mathematician who continued Copernicus' and Brahe's work. He concluded that the certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. He proved Copernicus' theory right.
The first emperor (1661) of the Qing Dynasty who ruled for 60 years
Mary Wollstonecraft
a women writer who believed that women like men should get educations.
René Descartes
he developed geometry and believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.
Alexander II
a Russian Czar who decided to move Russia toward modernization and social change.
persons of mixed European and African ancestry.
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Latin America to Spanish parents.
Separation of Powers
the assignment of executive, legislative, and judicial powers to different groups of officials in a government.
The Balkans
the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia.
Louis XVI
A French King who ruled during the French Revolution and was later guillotined.
in the Reformation, a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state.
Fredrick the Great
Fredrick II, the son of Fredrick William. He ruled Prussia. He earned the title "the Great" by achieving his goals for Prussia, in both domestic and foreign affairs.
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814 1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.
Social contract
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights thus creating an organized society or government.
Zheng He
A Chinese Muslim admiral who led seven voyages of exploration, more than a half century before Europe
members of the society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
José María Morelos
a priest who led the revolution for four years.
Camill di Cavor
a count who King Vider Emmanuel II named as his prime minister. He achieved expansion and the unification of Italy.
relating to a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting, music, and architecture in the 1600's and early 1700's/
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.
a government controlled by religious leaders
culottes in the French Revolution a radical group made up of Parisian wage earners who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices and an end of food shortages.
the warrior chieftains in Japan who became lords in the new kind of Japanese feudalism.
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain.
Francis Bacon
an English politician and writer. He created the experimental method or empiricism.
Charles I
the song of James I, who ruled England from 1625 to 1649.
Simón Bolívar
a wealthy Venezuelan Creole. He was called Libertador (liberator). He was a writer and a fighter.
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region.
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the document, the Declaration of Independence and was the third president of the United States of America.
a movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time.
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon.
Qing Dynasty
Manchu dynasty in China that ruled for 260 years and brought Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet into China
Peace of Augsberg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German State would be decided by its ruler.
Nicolaus Copernicus
a Polish cleric and astronomer; created a heliocentric theory and wrote the book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies" about his theory.
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV, the son of Vasily, who ruled Russia from 1533 to 1584.
Catholic Reformation
a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Seven Years' War
a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries.
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievement.
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect citizens' basic rights and freedoms.
Favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country exports more than it imports that is, sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after they storming of the Bastille in 1789.
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
a French writer who devoted himself to the study of political liberty. He believed in the separation of powers. "Power should be a check to power"
a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
One of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution—the first Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate of the nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the population.
a pardon releasing a person from punishment due for a sin.
earth policy the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by France's National Assembly in 1789.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Nobunaga's best general who continued his fallen leader's mission to take control of the entire country.
Declaration of Independence
a statement of the reasons for the American colonies' break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.
a formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs.
Scientific Revolution
a new way of thinking about the natural world; based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Habeas corpus
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin
the son of a peasant, the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty
General an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates or social classes in France.
Constitutional Monarchy
a monarchy in which the ruler's power is limited by the law.
Old Regime
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
a soldier who led a small army of Italian nationalists and captured Sicily.
in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly middle class business leaders and merchants—who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments.
Miguel Hidalgo
a priest from the small village of Dolores who was poor but well educated.
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority.
Thirty Years' War
a European conflict over religion, over territory, and for power among ruling families, lasting from 1618 to 1648.
Louis XIV
The Sun King, an absolute ruler in France who ruled from 1643 to 1715. He also built the magnificent palace of Versailles.
José de San Martín
a great liberator who believed in strict military discipline.
a German emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)
a type of Japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime are used to present stories.
Commercial revolution
the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
a person who supports artists, especially financially.
relating to the Church of England
Natural rights
the nights that all people are born with according to John Locke, the rights to life, liberty and property.
English Civil War
from 1642 to 1649, the supporters (royalists) and the opponents (puritans) of Charles I fought.
Marie Antoinette
the wife of Louis XVI, who was extremely unpopular in France. She was known as Madame Deficit because she spent so much on luxuries.
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual achievements.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
Catherine the Great
also known as Catherine II, who ruled Russia from 1762 to 1769. She was an absolute ruler and took steps to modernize and reform Russia.
Continental system
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Columbian Exchange
the global transfer of plants, animals, and disease that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
an imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book "Utopia" hence, an ideal place
Heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
a 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
Peter the Great
One of Russia's greatest reformers. He continued the trend of increasing the czar's power.
relating to a simple, elegant style (based on themes and ideas from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700's.
Federal system
a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states.
the everyday language of people in a region or country.
Phillip II
Charles V's son who inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies.
stock company, a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose and then share the profits.
Enlightened despot
one of the 18th century European monarchs who were inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of their subjects.
Absolute monarchs
a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society.
Red shirts
the followers of the 19th century Italian nationalist leader Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's minister who became, in effect, the ruler of France.
Holy alliance
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna.
the period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government.
a French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice.
in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
Napoleon the nephew of Napoleon. He took the title of Emperor Napoleon III.
Checks and balances
measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others.
Reign of Terror
the period from mid 1793 to mid 1794, when Robespierre ruled France, nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789 to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Committee of Public Safety
a committee established during the French Revolution to identify "enemies of the republic".
Oda Nobunaga
a daimyo who defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568.

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