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*USMLE 2 vitamins


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Vitamin deficiency:

Night blindness; dry skin; impaired immune response; squamous metaplasia of trachea and hair follicles
Vitamin A
Vitamin deficiency (and Dx):

polyneuritis, high-output cardiac failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, and edema

MCC of deficiency?
B1 - Thiamine

(Wet beri-beri)

MCC - alcoholism
Vitamin deficiency:

Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, Corneal vascularization, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis
Vit B2 - Riboflavin
(2 C's)
Vitamin deficiency (and Dx):

diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, beefy glossitis
Vit B3 - Niacin

Vitamin deficiency:

Dermititis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
B5 - Pantothenate
Vitamin deficiency:

Convulsions, hyperirritibility, glossitis, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemia w/ ringed sideroblasts
Vit B6 - Pyridoxine
Nutrient deficiency:

Dermatitis, enteritis


what is its use?

(from Avidin in raw eggs or antibiotics)

Use: Carboxylation rxns
Vitamin deficiency:

megaloblastic anemia
Folic acid
Vitamin deficiency:

anemia, optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia, glossitis

MMC of deficiency?

What test for Dx confirmation?
B12 - Cobalamin

MMC - pernicious anemia
(also fish tapeworm)

Shilling's test
Vitamin deficiency (and Dx):

swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing, perifollicular hemorrhage

what NT is it a cofactor for?
Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid


cofactor for NE
Vitamin deficiency:

Bending bones, soft bones, hypocalcemic tetany

What other effect is seen only in kids?

What is the most common cause of the deficiency?
Vitamin D

kids - soft spots in skull

MCC - chronic renal failure
Vitamin deficiency:

Neonatal hemorrhage, increased PT, increased PTT, normal bleed time

How is it made?

Most common cause of deficiency?
Vitamin K

made by colonic bacteria

MCC - broad spectrum Ab in hospital
Nutrient deficiency:

Poor wound healing, dissecting aortic anuerysm, skin depigmentation
Nutrient deficiency:

rash; dysgeusia; growth retardation; poor wound healing; hypogonadism, decreased adult hair
Vitamin deficiency (and Dx):

polyneuritis, muscle wasting, demyelination syndromes, distal sensorimotor neuropathy
Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
(Dry beri beri)

retarded growth and loss of muscle and sub-q fat;
"wasting away"

retarded growth and loss of muscule but retained sub-q fat, fatty liver, severe edema, anemia

[MEAL = Malabsorption, Edema, Anemia, Liver fat]
vitamin required for Transamination reactions

(Vit B-6)
(3)* causes of Pellagra

Hartnup Dz
(low Tryptophan);

(low Vit B-6);

Carcinoid syndrome
(high Tryptophan metabolism)
what NT and vitamin is Niacin derived from?

Vit B6

Alopecia, fatigue, HA, hepatocellular damage, sore throat, skin changes
Vit A toxicity
Vitamin deficiency:

increased fragility of RBC
Vitamin E

[E = Erythrocytes]

hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, renal calculi

(in children: growth retardation)
Excess Vitamin D

Deck Info