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Final Psych 270


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External Validity
generalize findings to other circumstances
If an Experiment has Internal Validity
Then changes in the DV (what is measured) can be accurately attributed to changes in the IV (what was manipulated)
6 Methods of Construct Validation
1. Syndrome identification: systematic description 2. Boundary Identification: demonstrated distinctiveness 3. Follow-up studies: longitudinal course 4. Treatment response: distinctive outcomes 5. Family studies: shared genetics 6. Identification of "more fundamental" correlates: psychological or biological abnormalities (enlarged ventricals in SCHZ, low baseline cortisol in PTSD)
The study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population
number of NEW cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time
total number of active cases that are present in a population during a specific period of time
comprised of a specific theory and a set of assumptions about how the theory is tested; thus the paradigm itself limits the field of possible factors to be evaluated
assumes that whole is more than the sum of the parts
assumes that the sum of its parts and can be understood by examining its smaller components
a psychological disorder may have multiple causes; there are many routes to the same destination
the same event can lead to different outcomes (abuse can lead to very different outcomes in different children)
Reciprocal causality
the direction of causality can bein both directions simultaneously
a predisposition to develop a disorder (usually..but not necessarily a heredity factor)
a difficult life experience
Concordance Ratings
- High for both: shared environment - Low for both: nonshared environment (experiences that are unique to one twin, for example) - if MZ > DZ: there is a genetic component for that trait or disorder
Biological Paradigm
Mental illness is understand as a physical illness (medication & psychosurgery & Electroconvulsive therapy)
Psychodynamic Paradigm
promotes insight into unconscious motivations and defenses and the influences of the past on the present (transference interpretations)
Cognitive-behavioral Paradigm
teaches new ways of thinking and acting to produce more adaptive functioning (classical conditioning techniques, systematic desensitization, flooding) etc.. outcome orientated
Humanistic Paradigm
goal is to increase emotional awareness and genuine emotional expression and to help people take responsibility for their own life choises (unconditional positive regard)
CAN specific treatments work? ...studies are tightly controlled - Strong internal validity but uncertain external validity
DOES treatment work in the real world?
refers to the identification or recognition of a disorder based on its characteristic symptoms
Categorical Approach
distinctions are QUALITATIVE, either in a category or not
Dimensional approach
attributes seen as falling on a continuum and continous
Axis I
most mental disorders, often involving episodic periods of difficulty
- disorders grouped under broad headings - defined by INCLUSION, EXCLUSION as well as DURATION
Axis II
stable, long-lasting problems (personality disorders and mental retardation)
Axis III
medical conditions RELATED to abnormal behavior (can cause symptoms of axis I or II..or a physiological stressor)
Axis IV
psychosocial and environmental problems affecting functioning or treatment (life events from the past year)
Axis V
global rating of adapative functioning (level of fcning 1-100)
the consistency of a measurement (diagnosis) - Kappa measures inter-rater reliability
the usefulness, meaning or importance of a measurement (diagnosis)
first person subjective experience
a state of arousal defined by subjective feeling states
pattern of observable behaviors associated with emotion
pervasive and sustained emotional state

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