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US History: Reconstruction and Jim Crow


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1865-1877; Period of rebuilding in the US after the Civil War, when the Southern Confederate states were readmitted to the US
Reconstruction Plan-Lincoln
Dec. 1863: Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction (aka 10% plan)- Confederates pardoned if took oath (except high-rank officials & ppl accused of crimes against POWs), once 10% of 1860 voters did, state could form goverment & send reps and senators to congress
Reconstruction Plan-Andrew Johnson
May 1865; Same as Lincoln's plus wealthy southern land-owners were excluded from taking oath; Johnson pardoned 13000 Confederates so south managed by white men
Reconstruction Plan-Radical Republicans
-Destry political power of slaveholders
-African-americans given full citizenship & right to vote
(Ended up going w/ this plan)
Freed African-american slaves
Freedmen's Bureau
1865; Established by Congress to provide food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, & education to former slaves & poor whites in the South
A landowner divides his land & assigns each family few acres, seeds, & tools to work with; Croppers kept some crops & most went to landowner
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896; Supreme Court case that made racial segregation legal under "seperate but equal" terms
Jim Crow Ettiquette
Blacks were expected to follow certain "rules" like addressing whites as higher authorities, stepping off the sidewalk when speaking to whites, and not eat in restaurants/ attend events the same day as whites
Homer Plessy
1892; Sat in a "White Only" train car & refused to move; Was arrested for breaking Louisiana's segregation law; Challenged that he had been denied equal protection under the law (14th)
Black's Challenges for Voting
Literacy test, poll tax, no car/long walk, threats from whites
Grandfather Clause
Any person who's father/grandfather was eligible to vote before Jan 1, 1867 is eligible w/o passing requirements (Not valid for any blacks bcuz couldn't vote before then)
13th Amendment
1865; Abolished slavery
14th Amendment
1868 aka Civil Rights' Amendment; All ppl born/naturalized in US (including slaves) are citizens of US equally protected under law
15th Amendment
1870; Cannot deny voting rights bcuz of race, color, or if they were a slave
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Against Whites, Anglo-Saxan, Protestants
Goals: Destroy Republican Party, throw out Reconstruction governments, prevent Blacks from voting
Methods: White cloaks like ghosts, burning crosses, lynching, violence
Jim Crow Era
1950s & 60s; Time when there were racists laws & actions that deprived African-American's of their civil rights by declaring them inferior
Election of 1876
Tilden (Democrat) won popular vote, but 1 short of electoral vs. Hayes (Republican); Agreed to accept Hayes if withdrew federal troops from South
To take away priveleges or right of citizenship, such as voting
Ugly, heavy-set, pitch black woman, who is happily obedient to her master, loyal, protective
Simple, laughing, carefree black man who doesn't like to do work, irresponsible, dancing, eating, singing
Old balding black man, passive, accepts inferiority
Black children portrayed as being victimized, animal like/savage
Zip Coon
Buffoon, free blacks in north who imitate whites & make fools of themselves
Large lips, gamblers, dancing, large eyes, urban areas, like sambo, then violent the next minute
T.D. Rice
White comedian who created the Jim Crow image by imitating a dancing cripple man while in black face

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