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Cells and Tissues


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Name the three main regions in a generalized cell
nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
what is the function of the cell's nucleus?
the nucleus contains the genetic material for the cell.
nuclear membrane
the double barrier between the nucleus and the rest of thte cell
where are the ribosomes assembled within the cell?
what is chromatin composed of?
DNA and protein
a transparent barrier that separates the cell contents from the environment
plasma membrane
what part of the cell consists of a double layer of lipids in which protein molecules float?
the plasma membrane
what are the two polar heads of the plasma membrane's phospholipid molecules?
hydophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-hating)
the tiny finger-like projections that are a specialization in some plasma membranes
name the three types of membrane junctions
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
_________ are impermeable junctions that bind cells together into leakproof sheets.
tight junctions
____ are anchoring junctions that prevent cells subject to mechanical stress from being pulled apart.
______ allow communication between cells.
gap junctions
The cytoplasm is the cellular material outside the ____ and inside the _____.
nucleus, plasma membrane
what are the three major elements of the cytoplasm?
cytosol, organelles, inclusions
Where are the mitochondria located, and what is their function?
In the cytosol; enzymes in the mitochondria carry out the reactions in which oxygen is used to break down food.
Sites of protein synthesis within the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of fluid-filled cisterns that serve as a minicirculatory system for the cell.
describe the forms of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
rough ER is studded with ribosomes; all the building materials of cellular membranes are formed either in it or on it

smooth ER functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs
what is the major function of the Golgi apparatus?
to modify and package proteins
which of the cell organelles digests worn-out cell structure and foreign bodies within the cell?
membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes that detoxify alcohol and disarm free radicals
what are free radicals?
highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids
How do he peroxisomes disarm free radicals?
they convert free radicals to H2O2, then the enzyme catalase converts excess H2O2 to water
The ____ forms the internal framework for the cell and provides the machinery needed for intracellular transport.
During cell division, the ______ direct the formation of the mitotic spindle.
cell that carries oxygen to the bloodstream
erythrocyte (red blood cell)
cell that connects body parts
epithelial cell
covers and lines body organs
cells that move body parts
skeletal and smooth muscle cells
fat cells
store nutrients
disease-fighting cell
macrophage cell
nerve cell
gathers information and controls body functions
female egg cell
male reproductive cell
homogeneous mixture of two or more components
the substance present in the largest amount in a solution
substances present in smaller amounts in a solution
what is selective permeability?
allowing some substances to pass through while excluding others
Diffusion and filtration are ____ _____ processes.
passive transport
simple diffusion
the unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane
diffusion of water through the membrane
facilitated diffusion
molecules too large or fat-insoluble use a protein "carrier" to assist them through the membrane
the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure
How is solute pumping similar to facilitated diffusion? How is it different?
both require protein carriers; facilitated diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the diffusion molecules, while solute pumping uses ATP to energize its protein carriers
What are the two types of bulk transport?
exocytosis and endocytosis
____ moves substances out of the cell, while ______ moves substances into the cell.
exocytosis, enocytosis
groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
the lining, covering and glandular tissue
What are the functions of the epithelium?
protection, filtration, absorption, and secretion
apical surface
the unattached edge of an epithelial membrane, exposed to either the body's exterior or to the internal cavity of an organ
having no blood supply of its own
The lower surface of the epithelium is bound by a ________ ________.
basement membrane
The classifications by cell layers are ______ epithelium and ______ epithelium.
simple, stratified
The shape of tissue cells are either ______, ________, or _________.
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
this type of epithelium usually forms membranes where filtration or exchange of substances by rapid diffusion occurs
simple squamous
this tissue forms the walls of the kidney tubules and the surface of the ovaries
simple cuboidal
this tissue makes up the mucous membranes
simple columnar
this tissue has cells of different heights, giving it a stratified appearance
pseudostratified columnar
all the transitional epithelium is localed in the _____ system.
The most common stratified epithelium in the body
stratified squamous
Both stratified ______ and stratified _____ epithelia are rare in the body.
cuboidal, columnar
what are the two glandular epithelium?
endocrine glands and exocrine glands
examples include thyroid, adrenals and pituitary
endocrine glands
sweat and oil glands are ______ glands.
the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type in the body
connective tissue
name three characteristics of connective tissue
binds body tissues together, supports the body, provides protection
Because tendons are ______ they tend to heal _______.
avascular, slowly
Because of its ______ _______, connective tissue can withstand stretching and bear weight.
extracellular matrix
Connective tissues are primarily involved in _______, ______, and _______ ________ other body tissues.
supporting, protecting, binding together
Non-living material that surrounds living cells
extracellular matrix
name the five classes of connective tissue
bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, blood
the cartilage that forms the supporting structures of the larynx, and covers the ends of the bones where they form joints
hyaline cartilage
the disks between he vertebrae of the spinal column
Tendons and ligaments are forms of _______ ________ tissue.
dense connective
three types of loose connective tissue
areolar, adipose, and reticular connective tissues
Edema is a condition of the ____ _____, where the area becomes swollen.
areolar tissue
commonly called fat
adipose tissue
Adipose tissue forms the ______ tissue beneath the skin.
tissue that forms the stroma
reticular connective tissue
vascular tissue
Vascular tissue consists of ______ _____, surrounded by ______ ________.
blood cells, blood plasma
the three types of muscle tissue
smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle
The muscular system is composed of ______ ______.
skeletal muscle
the two major functions of nervous tissue
irritability, conductivity
Tissue is repaired in what two ways?
regeneration, fibrosis
replacement of destroyed tissues by the same kind of cells
scar tissue
The type of tissue repair that occurs depends on:
the type of tissue damaged, and the severity of the injury

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