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A waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormone synthesis.
Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls. "bad cholesterol"
Low-densitey lipoprotein (LDL)
Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Are organic (carbon-containing) substances required in very small amounts to regulate various porcesses within living cells. Humans need 13 vitamins. Four are fat soluble: A, D, E, and K; and nine are water soluble: C and the eight B-complex vitamins.
the non fat component of the human body consisting of skeletal muscle bone and water
fat free mass
the performance of different types of activities that cause the body to adapt and improve its level of fitness
physical training
the training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it
the training principle that fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered
the part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the rest of the body controlled by the left side of the heart
systemic circulation
the part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and lungs controlled by the right side of the heart
pulmonary circulation
optimal health and vitality, encompassing physical emotional intellectual spiritual interpersonal social and environmental wellbeing
a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort
physical fitness
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy
physical activity
planned structured repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness
the ability of the body to perform prolonged large muscle dynamic excerise at moderate to high levels of intensity
cardiorespiratory endurance
the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort
muscular strength
the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time
muscular endurance
the range of motion in a joint or group of joints , related to muscle length
the proportion of fat and fat free mass (muscle bone and water) in the body
body composition
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced swung or jerked
ballistic stretching
the fat in the body necessary for normal body functioning
essential fat
extra fat or fat reserves stored in the body
nonessential fat
connective tissue in which fat is stored
adipose tissue
the percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
percent body fat
characterized by a body weight above a recommended range for good health , ranges are set through large scale population survey
severely overweight characterized by an excessive accumulationof body fat
absent of infrequent menstruation, sometimes related to low levels of body fat and excessive or intensity of exercise
A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels-A food that has a strong effect on blood glucose levels is said to have a high glycemic index.
glycemic index
the upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the ventricles
the two lower chamber in the heart from which blood flows through arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body
a tough band of tissue that connects the ends of bones to other bones ot supports organ place
the principle male hormone, responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and important in increasing muscle size
synthetic male hormones taken to enhance athletic performance and body composition
anabolic steroids
a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretched position
static stretching
vessels that carry blood to the heart
vessels that carry blood away from the heart
a tough band of fiberour tissue that connects muscle to bone
fats, also knkown as lipids, are the most concentrated source of energy (9 calories/gram). The fat stored in the body represents usable energy, help insulate your body, and support and cushion your organ. Fats in the diet help absorb fat-soluble vitamins.
Inorganic (non-carbon containing) elements needed in small amounts to help regulate body function, aid in the growth and maintenance of body tissues, and help release energy-Iron-deficiency can lead to anemia and calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosi
Raises total cholesterol found in; animal fats dairy products, palm and coconut oil.
saturated fats
Lowers total cholesterol found in Olive, Canola, and Safflower oils, Avocados, olives and nuts.
monounsaturated fats
reduces blood clotting and inflammation and inhibits abnormal heart rhythms, lowers-triglyceride levels, lowers total cholesterol.
polyunsaturated fats
The major component in both foods and the human body; you are composed of approximately 60%
The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease.
Substances the body must get from food becuase it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. These nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water.
Essential nutrients
The process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds (smaller pieces) that the body can absorb.
A measure of energy content in food; 1 kilocalorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius; commonly referred to as a calorie.
The building blocks of protein. Twenty common amnio acids are found in food, nince are essential, which cannot be produced by the body; the oter eleven amino acids can be produced by the body as long as the necessary components are supplied by foods.
Amino Acids
An essential nutrient; a compund made of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Individual protein souces are considered "complete" if they all supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts and "incomplete" if they do
An essential nutrient, sugars, starches, and dietary fiber are all carbohydrates; carbohydrates are needed in the diet primarily to supply energy to the body cells. Some cells , such as those in the brain and other parts of the nervous system and in the b
A simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel
A starch stored in the liver and muscles transport substances around the body; other fluids serve as lubricants or cushions. Water also helps regulate body temperature.

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