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Charles Darwin: Theories
1: variety exists in species 2: limited amount of natural resources 3: more individuals born than nature can support 4: individuals born with advantageous variation will live longer
vestigial organs
organs that are there, but aren't functional anymore
radioactive-isotope dating
uses radiation and equations to determine the age of fossils
fossil types
molds & casts
disruptive selection
a form of natural selection in which the extremes are favored over the normal average trait
reproductive isolation
the existence of biological factors that impepde members of two species from producing viable, fertile hybrids
preserved specimines
when different species embryos look alike in the fetus
fossil dating
relative dating & radioactive-isotope dating
the different amounts of gene flow
genetic drift
the change in gene frequency of a small population due to change
relative dating
tells the age of the fossil
directional selection
when a populations average drastically changes in one direction
homologous structures
similar bone and joint structure between species
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
can determine many things about a dead species
sexual selection
natural selection for mating success in which the one animal may not reproduce
Jean Baptiste de Lamark: Theories
1: the use and disuese of organs 2: inheritance of acquired traits
geographic isolation
when a species is seperated from their original habitat
the 9 forces of evolution
mutation, migration, genetic drift, stabilizing sellection, directional selection, disruptive selection, sexual selection, geographic isolation, reproductive isolation
stabilizing selection
favors the norm, the common, the average traits in a population . reduces certain subjects by editing out the extremes.

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