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SPSS Glossary


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aggregate data
data based on larger group from smaller
alternative forms method
measuring the same variable different ways with two equal forms
analysis of variance
comparing variance in the dependant variable in the three or more groups to the dependant variable
antecedent variable
independent variable that logically come before another independent variable
a change in one variable happens with the change in another variable
accepted as fact based on the position of who tells you
bar chart
frequency distribution at the nominal and ordinal level
benchmarks of acceptable risk
accepted levels of risk for determining probability
beta weight
slope of a regression line after standardization
bivariate analysis
analysis of two variable simultaneously to determine if there is a relationship
Boolean Connectors
internet searches using and or not
call numbers
library numbers
case study
examining in detail on only one occasion
causal chain
variables linked together that explain a dependent variable
causal hypothesis
independent variable always changes another variable
change in dependent variable caused by the independent variable.
gather data from every member of a population
census data
information collect by govt about entire population
chi square
cross tabulation data to determine significance
classic experimental design
random subjects with control group and experimental group
cleaning data
checking and correcting data
closed ended question
limited answers that they must choose from
cluster sampling
clumping population based on a criteria
equates answers to values for calculation
coefficient of determination
r2 variation of dependent variable explained by independent variable.
coefficient of multiple determination
r2 variation of dependent variable explained by all the independent variables in multivariate analysis.
collapse a variable
combine variables
comparative value statement
compare relative values of variables
comparison group
not randomly assigned control group
compound hypothesis
hypothesis with two or more variables
organized characteristics of objects, phenomena and ideas
defining concepts so meaning are concise
concurrent validity
validity is demonstrated by measuring the predictor and criterion at the same time
condensed table
multivariate table with only one dependent variable being shown
information provided by subject will not be revealed
confounding factors
independent variables may affect dependent variables
consistency bias
people answering question answer questions in a way to sound logical and consistent
construct validity
extent in which a measure entirely covers a concept
content analysis
collect and analyze written and electronic media
content validity
measure covers the full meaning of a concept
contingency questions
filter question
control group
identical to experimental group but are not exposed to the experiment
control variable
constant variable used to determine relationship between two other variables
convenience sampling
haphazard samples
criterion-related validity
extent a measure is related to something it should be related to
cross tabulation
one variable is classified in terms of another
cumulative percentage
additive percentage of cases
data archives
collected data from previous research
data file
computer file that stores data
data matrix
template used to organized data
explaining experiment to subjects after the experiment
deductive reasoning
generalizations are used to make specific statements
dependent variable
changes in a variable is effected by an independent variable.
information about a single variable or a single case
descriptive question
a question asking about reality rather than seeking an answer.
descriptive statistics
summary of values of a single variable measuring central tendency.
deviation score
difference between the value of a variable and the mean of the distribution, added together always equals zero.
dichotomous variable
variable with only two values.
direction of a relationship
how two variables are associated (positive or negative)
directional hypothesis
hypothesis that states how two variables are related.
disproportionate stratified sample
sample elements are disproportionately represent when compared to the population.
ecological fallacy
stereotypes used to make decision about individuals
examining effects of control variables on the relationship of two variables.
something that a researcher collects information on.
empirical political analysis
a method of testing one ideas about politics by collecting/analyzing data.
empirical question
a question that can be answered by gathering information and analyzing that data.
error component
Unexplained variation of the dependent variable in a regression equation
evaluative statement
statement made based on personal experiences.
event statistic
data used to collectivities such as countries or cities.
expected frequency
expected frequency if variables are unrelated.
experimental group
group in an experiment exposed to the experiment
experimental mortality
loss of members for control and experiment groups over the length of the study.
explanatory question
A question about why something exists or the cause of some behavior
extensive approach
getting a small amount of information from a large sample
external validity
results of an experiment can be generalized to other groups of situations
statistical significance among the means from three or more analysis groups.
face validity
makes sense based on common definition
factorial design
design in which more than one independant variable is employed
knowledge not based on proof
field experiment
real world setting
filter question
screening question
frequency distribution
value present in numbers and percentages
frequency polygon
line graph with interval/ratio on X axis and frequency/proportion on Y axis
a statistic that indicates the strength and relationship of two variables
bar chart where width measures interval and all bars touch which measures duration.
life events that effect the way people may answer a question.
statement of relationship that can be tested
hypothetical-deductive system
observation results in generalizations about the world
independent variable
the variable that is not effected by the dependent variable.
how you measure indicators to determine a concept
observable evidence
inductive reasoning
specific observation used to make a generalization
informed consent
telling the subject what you are going to do an them agreeing freely
institutional review board
reviews research to protect humans
developing measurement devices
intensive approach
lots of quests to a small group
interactive effect
effect of two or more variables on one dependent variable
intercoder reliability
reliability between codebooks
internal validity
how much changes in the indep variable changes the dependent variable.
interquartile range
range of value represented by middle 50%
intersubjective agreement
level of agreement between two people on how and event should be described
interval level of measurement
scale of measurement that not only rank orders but also shows equal interval between values
intervening variable
control variable placed between the independent and dependent variable.
believing something because of personal stake in it being true.
judgmental data
measures that are based on the opinions of experts in categorizing units of analysis
judgmental sample
selected sample units believed to be representative of a population
keywords and phrases
Stat that measures strength of association at the nominal level
latent content
deeper meaning of media messages grouped by content analysis
levels of measurement
amount of information and levels of precision
liner regression analysis
best fit line between multiple variables
knowledge through mental thought
macro level of analysis
analysis of units for things that can be described geographically
main effect
direct effect of independent variable on dependent variables
manifest content
easily understood content of media messages
totals of columns and rows
change in subject to time
a measure of the central tendency for variables
numbers are assigned units of analysis to determine worth
measurement error
difference be a concept and its operational definition
measure of association
strength and relationship between a variable
measures of central tendency
the most frequent value
measure of dispersion
distance from the central tendency
middle point of a distribution
median group
group that contains the median
micro level of analysis
focus on people vs countries
modal category
variable that contains the greatest number of cases
the most frequently occurring variable
multigroup design
an experimental group is added for each independent variable above two.
multigroup time series design
design with multiple pre and post tests
multiple correlation coefficient
a measure of association between a dependent variable and tow or more independent variables
multiple linear regression
measuring the relationship between a dependent variable and two independent variables while holding one independent variable constant
multistage cluster sampling
groups are sampled in the early stages and individuals in the late stages.
multivariate analysis
looking at the relationships of two or more variables
multivariate percentage table
percentage table showing relationship between three of more variables
natural experiment
experiment where experiment and control group occur naturally in nature and are not chosen by the researcher.
changes in an independent variable are necessary to change the dependent variable
negative relationship
relationship is opposite
grouping multivariate analysis
nominal definition
definition using words assigned by the researcher
nominal level of measurement
analysis without ranking
nonprobability sample
nonrandom measurement error
normal curve
frequency curve with a bell shape
normative question
value laden question for evaluation
null hypothesis
no relationship between variables
observed frequencies
number of cases found in each cell of cross tabulation
one-tailed test
testing the directional hypothesis by comparing two means
open ended question
questions that allow people to write their own answers.
defining concepts that allow them to be measured
ordinal level of measurement
classifies units of analysis into categories that have hierarchal order difference between the categories is unknown
plotted value outside the trend
the sample of persons analyzed in a study using the Q-technique
the boundaries of an analysis
partial regression coefficient
how much change in the dependent variable if you only change one independent variable and all the other independent variables remain constant
percentage table
display proportion as opposed to raw numbers
total set of units for analysis
population element
single member of a population
positive relationship
relationship between variable moving in the same direction
measurement of the dependent variable after being exposed to the independent variable
predictive validity
prescriptive value statement
a value statement characterized by words like should and ought
probability sample
program evaluation
proportionate reduction of error
predicts relationship strength between two variables
proportionate stratified sampling
sample populations are selected based on known population elements
deliberate sample of statements taken from a group of communications
viewpoints selected from strong agreement to strong disagreement
data collection of human subjectivity
qualitative research methods
used to describe a situation in a natural surrounding
a sort experiment
quota sampling
sampling based on percentage appearing in nature
random assignment
random digit dialing
random measurement error
random error that can be expected in an experiment
difference between high and low variable
ratio level of measurement
has true zero point as well as all the lower levels of measurement
recode a variable
combining variables to simplify
recording units
reducing effect
reducing the strength of the first two variables when a third one is added.
refining effect
the original relationship survives only when the third variable is controlled
regression coefficient
the slope of a regression line represented as b.
regression line
line that best fits a scatter plot
consistency of measurement
third variable added does not change the first two.
research design
plan to show how hypothesis will be answered
response set bias
revealing effect
reversal effect
third variable changes the first two to opposites
saliency bias
early question shapes future response
sample element
sampling error
sampling frame
sampling interval
sampling ratio
scatter plot
used to graphically show the relationship between dependent (Y axis) and independent X-axis) variables
secondary analysis
self-administered questionnaires
simple post design
simple random sample
shows change in indep and dependant variables
snowball sampling
small group recommends people with similar interests for sampling
Solomon four group design
adds two groups the classic experiment to limit bias from the pretest
split-halves method
splitting a group giving them the same test an comparing the results
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
spurious relationship
a relationship that appears casual but is the result of a third variable
standard deviation
measure distance from the mean
standard error
show sampling error
standard error estimate
square root of the average squared error
standard score
scores converted to standard deviation units
estimate of population parameter
statistical significance
likelihood that a relationship found exists in the general population
stratified sampling
strength of relationship
how much constantly variables move together
syntality variables
Variables that describe the qualities of a region or group as a whole, such as American Cities that have city manager forms of government
systematic sampling
Sampling by selecting for inclusion every nth element on a list
A statistical procedure to determine the level of statistical significance between means from two analysis groups
a statement that is true by definition and cannot be confirmed or falsified
temporal order
Used to infer causality
test-retest method
double test at two different points in time to measure validity
theoretical population
the population about which the researcher want to develop generalizations
theories of the middle range
theories offering reasonable accurate explanations of a limited number of social behaviors
something used to explain an occurrence
time series graph
two-tailed tests
testing the null hypothesis by comparing the two means
Type I error
False positive
unit of analysis
false negative
univariate statistics
stats that describe a single variable for the purpose of description
unobtrusive measures
Measurement that does not involve direct interaction
measure reflect concept to be measured
unit of analysis that takes on more than one variable
variable name
measure of dispersion
writing handbook
where line crosses y axis
A standard score that indicates the number of standard deviation units that a score differs from the mean.

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