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Evolution

Terms

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gametic isolation
egg and sperm do not fuse to reproduce
homologous structure
characteristic descended from commom ancestor (i.e. human arm, bat wing)
directional selection
environmental change favors one extreme (really big antlers)
postzygotic barriers
can produce hybrid, sterile offspring (horse + monkey = mule)
mechanical isolation
anatomically incompatible to reproduce
prezygotic barrier
impedes mating between species or hinders fetilization
mutations
change in organisms' DNA
assortive mating
mating of individuals with similar phenotypes
protenoid
abiotically polymerized amino acid that, when exposed to water, become microspheres having cellular characteristics
uniformitarianism
belief that geological forces act at a uniform, continuous rate
p^2+2pq=q^2
hardy-weinberg equilibrium
heterotroph
needs to eat
botteneck effect
sudden small population due to natural disaster
protein-first hypothesis
in chemical evolution: proposal that protein originated before other macromolecules and made the formation of protocells possible
adaptive radiation
evolution of many different species form common ancestors, new species forms when geologically isolated from ancestors (only works for islands)
species
population whose members have potential to reproduce
genetic drift
random change in allele frequency
stabilizing selection
eliminates individuals at extreme ends (i.e. deer with antlers too big and too small are eliminated)
behavioral isolation
behaviors that attract mates
autotroph
self-feeder, releases O2
nonrandom mating
mating based on phenotypic similarities or differences
eukaryotic
membrane bound organelles
intrasexual selection
male choice-- direct competition among individuals of one sex, males fight for a group of females
diversifying selection
environmental conditions vary= favors both extremes
intersexual selection
female choice-- individuals are choosy when selecting a mate
analogous structure
structure that has a similar function in separate lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry
chemical evolution
increase in complexity of chemicals over time that could have led to the first cells
RNA
first genetic material, self-replicating
temporal isolation
different times of day, mating seasons and years prevent different species from reproducing
protocell
cell with lipid membrane that keeps water in and out
allopatric speciation
population with geographically seperated ranges
gene flow
loss or gain of allele due to migration
decent with modification
darwin's term for natural selection
vestigial organ
organ that no longer has a function
natural selection
variation in population + selective pressure + differential/successful reproduction
founder effect
few individuals from large population collonize in isolated area>rare alleles occur at high frequencies (Amish dwarfism)
microevolution
changing allele frequency per population
gene pool
all alleles are at gene loci (focus) in all individuals of a population
homology
similarity of parts of different organisms caused by evolution derivation from corresponding part in a remote ancestor
punctuated equilibrium
bursts of change followed by very little change
macroevolution
origin of new taxonomic groups
sympatric speciation
takes place in geologically overlapping populations
Miller & Urey
1950's glass ball, first gasses were an organic compound > makes life possible
polymer
macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers
allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color

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