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Human Anatomy- Chapter 1


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The study of the STRUCTURE of the human body.
Anatomy and __________ are often used as synonyms.
The study of form
The study of the functions of the human body
What are the two approaches to studying gross anatomy?
Systemic- all the organs with related FUNCTION are studied together (APK 2100)

Regional- where all structures in a REGION are studied together (medical school)
he study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye.
Gross Anatomy
the study of shapes and markings on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs.
Surface Anatomy
the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope.
Microscopic anatomy (histology)
What are the 6 levels in the heirarchy of structural organization?
1. Chemical level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. Organ systems
6. Organism
What anatomy is studied at the chemical level?
the chemical level includes atoms and molecules.

Most importantly the four macromolecules: Nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates which are what allows cells to sustain life.
What anatomy is studied at the cellular level?
Recall that the cellular level is the smallest unit of LIFE.
What is the tissue level?
Cells that work together to perform a common function are referred to a tissue.
What occurs at the organ level?
Extremely complex physiological processes. Organs combine tissues to perform a common function.
On average how many of the four types of tissue do organs combine?
All four.
Organ systems
Are made up of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose (cardiovascular and digestive systems)
What are the 11 organ systems of the body?
what is the hightest level of organization in the human body?
the organismal level.
Integumentary system
Provides the first line of defense.

Site of sensation receptors as well as sweat and sebaceous glands.
Skelletal system (4)
Gives structure and allows movement.

blood cells are formed within the bones.

Bones store minerals.
Muscular system (2)
Allows movement

Generates heat to keep us warm.
Protects us from disease (immune response)

houses WBC
respiratory system (2)
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen

removes CO2
Digestive system
Breaks down food into absorbable units

Excretes undigestable food
Nervous system (3)
produces electrical impulses

controls movement

Very quick repsonses
Endocrine system
Glands that secrete hormones
cardiovascular system
Blood vessels transport blood and within it ATP, oxygen, CO2, minerals, vitamins.
Urinary system (2)
eliminates nitrogenous wastes.

regulates water and mineral levels.
What is the position in which we name directionality of anatomical structures?
The Anatomical Reference position.
Which plane of reference "extends vertically and divides the body into right and left portions"?
Sagittal plane
Which plane of reference "extends vertically and divides the body into front and back portions"
Frontal or Cornonal plane
which plane of reference divides the body through the midline into a top and bottom half?
Transverse plane
Which plane of reference divides the body at a diagonal at any angle?
oblique plane (allows us to see the valves of the heart)
Directional terms

closer/further from the middle
closer/further from the trunk
on the outside/further inside
What are the five fundamental movements
What defines a flexion movement?
When the angle between the movement gets shorter. (Flexing biceps)
What defines a extension movement?
When the angle of movement decreases (extension of the bent arm/leg)
What defines a abduction movement?
movement AWAY from the midline
What defines a adduction movement?
movement TOWARD the midline
What are the two descriptive terms for rotation?
internal- toward body
external- away from body
Flexion and extension occur in which plane and around what axis?
In the sagittal plane around a frontal axis.
Abducrtion and adduction occur in which plane and around which axis?
Abduction and adduction occur in the frontal plane and around a sagital axis.
Rotation occurs in which plane and around what axis?
Rotation occurs in the transverse plane and around the longitudinal axis.
The heart is ______ to the sternum?
The elbow is ________ to the wrist.
The navel is _______ to the chin
what does the term -chondriac mean?
Name the 9 abdominal regions and give major structures found therin
Right hypochondiac- liver/gallbladder

Left hypochondriac- stomach/spleen

Right Lumbar- ascending colon

Left Lumbar-descending colon

Right Illiac- Cecum

Left Illiac- sigmoid colon

epigastric- stomach

umbilical- Small intestine

hypogastric- bladder
In which of the abdominal regions are the following organs found:

Ascending large intestine
descending large intestine
Small intestine
Gall bladder
Right hypochondriac
Right lumbar
Left lumbar
left hypochondriac
left hypochondriac
Right hypochondriac
What are the four major abdominal regions (CLINICAL)
Right upper
Left upper
Right lower
Left lower
In the clinical division of the abdomen, what is the origin?
the navel (belly button)
The body is divided into 2 MAJOR CAVITIES. What are they?
Dorsal body cavity- the hard, bony walls of this cavity PROTECT the contained organs. (includes the skull and backbone)

Ventral body cavity- the LARGER more ANTERIOR body cavity (having 2 sub-divisions)
What are the SUB-DIVISIONS of the dorsal cavity?
cranial- in the skull and encases the brain.

vertebral- runs through the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord.
What are the subdivisions of the Ventral body cavity?
Thoracic- surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles.

abdominopelvic- surrounded by the abdominal wall and pelvic girdle.
The abdominopelvic cavity (sub-division of the vental cavity) is further sub-divided into two cavities. What are they?
1.) Abdominal cavity- contains the liver, stomach, kidneys and other organs.

2.) Pelvic cavity- contains the bladder, reproductive organs and the rectum.
The thoracic cavity (subdivision of the ventral cavity) is further subdivided into three cavities. What are they?
1.) 2 pleural cavities (include lungs)
2.) Superior mediastinum (above heart)
3.) Mediastimum (includes heart)
What are some of the "other" cavities?
orbital (eye)
middle ear
Synovial (joints)
the site where two bones meet is called a
Body MEMBRANES are made up of
connective and epithelial tissue
What are the purposes of body membranes?
Cover, seperate and support cavities.
(line all body cavities)
What are the two categories of body membranes?
Mucous and Serous
What makes up the mucous membrane and where can it be found?
it can be found lining all the cavities

composed of epithelial cells on a bed of connective tissue.
Where can serous membranes be found? What is its purpose?
lines closed cavities. allows for movement and sliding among organs.
Serous membrane can be broken into two types. What are they and what distinguishes the two?
Parietal- the layer of serous membrane that forms the outer "WALL" of the layer

Visceral- the serous membrane layer that is attached to the "ORGAN"
The following three cavities are made up of some combination of visceral and parietal serous membrane. What is the combo for each?

ALL three have both parietal and viseral serous membrane around their respective organs (Lungs, heart, stomach/liver)
What is the role of the serous membrane in the pleural cavity. Where do each type of serous membrane "attach" in the pleural cavity?
allows movement in the rib cage since the volume of lungs changes.

Visceral- attaches to lungs
Parietal- attaches to pleural cavity.
What is the function of the serous membrane in the peritoneal cavity? where do each of the serous membrane types bind in this cavity?
the purpose of the serous membrane here is to allow safe movement of the organs.

visceral- attached to the individual organs
parietal- attached to the abdominal wall
What is the role of serous membrane in the pericardial cavity? where do each type of serous membrane attach in this cavity?
the purpose is to reduce fricion and heat production as a result of the heart pumping.

Visceral- attach to heart
parietal- attach to mediastinum.
What causes a collapsed lung?
When there is a rupture in the pleural cavity causing serous membrane to leak out and be replaced by air.

Now the rib cage wont expand and the lung can no longer fill with air.

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