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Ch. 15 vocab

Terms

undefined, object
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gene pool
all of the populations genes being together in a large pool
artificial selection
breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.
vestigial structure
a body structure in a present day organism that no longer serves it original purpose
genetic drift
the alteration of allelic frequencies by chance events
camouflage
an adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings
disruptive selection
individuals with either extreme of a traits variation are selected for
polyploid
any individual or species with a multiple of the normal set of chromosomes
geographic isolation
occurs whenever a physical barrier divides a population
convergent evolution
a pattern of evolution in which distantly related organisms evolve similar traits
allelic frequency
the percentage of any specific allele in the gene pool
divergent evolution
the pattern of evolution in which species that once were similar to an ancestral species diverge
mimicry
structural adaptation that enables one species to resemble another species
directional selection
occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
gradualism
idea that species originate through a gradual change of adaptions
adaptive radiation
the result when an ancestral species evolves into an array of species to fit a number of diverse habitats
stabilizing selection
natural selection that favors average individuals in a population.
punctuated equilibrium
argues that speciation occurs relatively quickly, in rapid bursts, with longer periods of genetic equilibrium in between
analogous structure
the body parts of organisms that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function
genetic equilibrium
the frequency of alleles remains the same over generations
natural selection
mechanism for change in populations
reproductive isolation
occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring
homologous structure
structural features with a common evolutionary origin, can be similar in arrangement, in function, or in both.
speciation
occurs when members of similar populations no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring within their natural environment
embryo
earliest stage of growth and development of both plants and animals

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