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Bible is:
oUltimate authority
oUltimate truth
oHard to understand sometimes
Bible is not:
oScience text
oEasy to understand
Origins is not that big a deal...
o It does affect a lot
It is not only thing Christian Science should study: i.e. Cal's story
evolution change in allele frequency
over long periods of time microevolution will eventually create new species
⬢There are options and we will discuss them
⬢God did it
⬢Had to be involved at several points
oHebrew "Bara"-places where God supernaturally got involved
⬢Adam and Eve were real people(real people talked about them in the Bible)
Scientific Creationism
is the belief that the account of creation in the early chapters of Genesis is scientifically as well as religiously valid and that it can be supported by scientific evidence apart from scriptural authority. Refer also to creation according to Genesis.

•"Yom" in Genesis 1 means a 24 hour period of time
•God literally did it in six literal days
•This is the point of view of Institute Creation Research, Et al.
•Basic science
•Weak points- not a lot of data behind Scientific Creationism, and the world looks older than 10,000 years – why would God make it look older than it is?
•Ex nihilio-“out of nothing”
•Greenhouse effect- everything tropical around world, why coal is in Alaska.
Our ideas...
theology<-anthropology<- sociology⬦what God wants us to do is the opposite theology -> anthropology -> sociology
Middle of the Road Theories
•Gap, Ruin, Reconstruction theory- this group sees a gap between the first part of Gen. 1 and the second part. God let evolution did it the first time then, He ruined it so He could re-do it his way. (taking science and trying to make it fit into theology)
•Framework- Gen. 1 a literary device…days one (light and darkness) two (atmosphere and ocean separated) and three (land and oceans separated) formation of universe and days 4 (sun, stars, and moon created),5 (birds and aquatic life created),6 (land-animal life and humans created) filling those structures
•Revelation Day- the days here are real 24 hour days, but instead of days where God created everything its Moses being told by God of God’s creation of earth
•Day-Age (Period of unknown time)/Theistic Evolution (helped by guidance from God)-(Intelligent Design)- says that its to complex to happen by itself…evolution happened under the guidance of something
Scientific Revolutions
oAstrology-Geocentric (earth as center of universe) to Heliocentric (sun center of our solar system
oGeology-Catastrophism (flood geology) (short, rapid catastrophes) to Uniformitarianism (the processes that have been happening have always been happening, “present is the key to the past”)- Lyle and Hutton-Uniformitarianism the processes that created the geology of the world are different today than they were at the beginning of time, the catastrophes are different and they happened much more frequently and to a greater extent the processes that we see today have always been happening and the rates that we see today have always been the rates that have existed throughout
oBiology-Creationism (God created the earth in 6 days) to Evolutionism (Godless way of creating life) Darwin said it happened in an unguided way.
set of practices that define a scientific discipline during a particular period of time
Big Bang
-the cosmic explosion that marked the beginning of the universe according to the big bang theory
Cosmic Time
-the time covered by the physical formation and development of the universe and the first dateable rock⬦on a calendar schedule (a theory)
Geologic Time
-the time of the physical formation and development of the earth (especially prior to human history)
Geologic Time Scale
oEras- 2 or more periods
Early earth
(reducing atmosphere in which free oxygen was not present, mainly methane, nitrogen, CO2 (no oxygen, no ozone layer, no protection from UV light—how do you get around this problem?--> water (protects from UV light))- oxygenated earth is what is thought to be true now
Plate tectonics
-a theory in geology: the lithosphere of the earth is divided into a small number of plates which float on and travel independently over the mantle and much of the earth's seismic activity occurs at the boundaries of these plates
-geology- land separated from one clump to the seven continents…find the evidences for it…polarity reversal in the way that the magnetic particles line up in rock rnrNrnr…Big mountain range in Atlantic ocean, magnetic, the bands alternated—the poles of the earth have flipped occasionally, no one knows why—band reversals had same kind of rock—concluded the earth has a crust that is thin over the ocean and thick over the continents which floats on top of the mantel, then the core (both have a couple of layers) the crust is divided up into many plates—hot spots in the mantel (in the core underneath) as it rises it will reach the cooler area and have to go one way or the other
Continental drift
a hypothetical slow movement of the continents on a deep-seated viscous zone within the earth
spreading boundary allows magma to create new crust; create rift valleys: they fill with water and become oceans
(why the earth doesn’t grow)-boundary comes together ;
boundary slides against one another
La Russia
pan means all⬦all continents together
What leads to what in the old earth?
Old earth gives time for micro to lead to macro-if you don’t have the micro then macro cannot occur
“Evidences” of Evolution
-Fossil record
-Intermediate forms
-Molecular biology
Fossil record
-geologic record are closely related with Uniformitarianism…all fossils found in sedimentary rocks…goes through lithification…fossils need very rapid burial…radioactive dating techniques… if this is true then animals came from bacteria and over time became human

- Closely tied into the geological record, based on Uniformitarianism fossils found in sedimentary rock (igneous into sediment, water, lithification, dead things get trapped) fossils require rapid burial or they will decay. Radioactive dating techniques (C14). Radioactive half-lives—isotopes that are unstable parents which decay into stable daughter atoms (C14 turns into C12)
Intermediate forms
missing links between the different forms of similar looking animals⬦use missing link between the horse/bird reptile⬦idea is if they were only transition animals then they would be rarer and fewer fossils of those organisms
Molecular biology
comparing amino acid structure between different organisms⬦sequence of amino acid is different between the organisms⬦theory is the more differences the less related we are⬦.thought to have similar ancestors
same embryological origin⬦definition: a branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants
similarities in form or structure and embryological origins
structure is different internally, may look the same externally; embryological location is different
Embryology recapitulates phylogeny
study of embryo repeats the evolutionary history of a species
Ernst Haeckel
created these embryological drawings that tried to connect these creatures to one another by having “gill slits” and “tails”…note this has been DISPROVED
Gene Pool
all the variations possible in a population
*Lamarck’s Theory (wrong of course)
about the giraffes stretching their necks
*Darwin’s Theory (correct)
longer neck giraffes survive while the others die away. Variation is inherited.
Hardy-Weinberg Law
states that if certain conditions are met evolution will not occur⬦

⬢Five conditions must be met⬦(rarely met)
1. No mutations occur⬦
2. No natural selection occurs⬦
3. No organisms enter or leave the population⬦
4. If all organisms have an equal opportunity to mate⬦
5. Population size is very large
⬢If not... evolution will not occur⬦
Hardy-Weinberg equation
1 = p2 + 2pq + q2

op=% of Dominant Allele in the population
oq=% of Recessive Allele in the population
op2= % of the homozygous dominant
oq2= % of the homozygous recessive
o2pq= % of population heterozygous
Five Agents of Microevolution
o Mutations
oGene flow
oNon-random mating
oGenetic drift
oNatural Selection
sudden inheritable changes in gene structure…change in DNA…90ish percent are deadly…there are silent mutations that don’t have any visible effect...small percentage of mutations bring good change (least frequent type of mutation)
Gene flow
- immigration changes⬦gained additional genes from other places around the world⬦new individuals come in and some leave
Non-random mating
(differential reproduction)-some reproduce more then others do⬦some are more wanted then others
Genetic drift
impacts more on small populations…random changes in allele frequencies…unnatural changes in allele…Bottleneck Effect…70% dominant and 30% recessive…that is going to fluctuate how that’s going to be expressed…the bottleneck is the effect that changes the situation for the population…say the 70% is almost destroyed the result of the next population is going to be different
Natural Selection
a natural process that results in the survival and reproductive success of individuals or groups best adjusted to their environment and that leads to the perpetuation of genetic qualities best suited to that particular environment
oExcess progeny- excess offspring of animals or plants
oVariability-if there aren’t a lot of kids then evolution will happen very slowly
oInheritability- trait can’t be passed along
oDifferential adaptiveness- different alleles allow better or worse adaptation to the environment
oDifferential reproduction-certain organisms are going to reproduce more then others.
Cenozoic Era
-Quaternary Period
-Recent Epoch(0.1-0)
-Pleistocene Epoch (1.8- .01)
-Tertiary Period
-Pliocene Epoch (5-1.8)
-Miocene Epoch (23-5)
-Oligocene Epoch (36-23)
-Eocene Epoch (57 to 36)
-Paleocene Epoch (65 to 57)
Three types of selection
- populations have a bell shaped curve pg. 446
oStabilizing selection
oDisruptive selection
oDirectional selection
Stabilizing selection
the average⬦being average is best
Mesozoic Era
-Cretaceous Period (144-65)
-Jurassic Period (213-144)
-Triassic Period (248-213)
Disruptive selection
the big and small⬦against the average
Directional selection
the larger individuals⬦one extreme is better then the other extreme and the average
Paleozoic Era
-Permian Period (280-248)
-Carboniferous Period (360-280)
-Devonian Period (408-360)
-Silurian Period (438-408)
-Ordovician Period (490-438)
-Cambrian Period (545-490)
Which of these scenarios is going to lead to the creation of new species?
disruptive⬦maybe directional
Which will happen in the wild?
stabilizing⬦maybe directional
organisms ability to change as the environment changes or to change if they get stuck in a new environment⬦microevolution is a process and adaptation is the result
Carl Sagan thought
matter is all that ever was he used 5 factors to determine if life can survive on different planets, most use 30 factors
survivors were the fittest and best⬦the capacity of an organism to survive and transmit its genotype to reproductive offspring as compared to competing organisms; also : the contribution of an allele or genotype to the gene pool of subsequent generations as compared to that of other alleles or genotypes
Special Creation
Life-forms may have been put on earth by supernatural or divine forces. They hypothesis that a diving God created life is at the core of most major religions.
Extraterrestrial Origin
Life may not have originated on earth at all; instead, life may have infected earth from some other planet. This hypothesis, called panspermia, proposes that meteors or cosmic dust may have carried significant amounts of complex organic molecules to earth, kicking off the evolution to life.
these factors make the probability (.03) to the 30th power
Spontaneous Origin
Life evolved from inanimate matter as associations among molecules became more and more complex. In this view, the force leading to life was selection.
Miller-Urey Experiment
Miller took molecules which were believed to represent the major components of the early Earth's atmosphere and put them into a closed system.Next, he ran a continuous electric current through the system, to simulate lightning storms believed to be common on the early earth. Analysis of the experiment was done by chromotography. At the end of one week, Miller observed that as much as 10-15% of the carbon was now in the form of organic compounds. Two percent of the carbon had formed some of the amino acids which are used to make proteins. Perhaps most importantly, Miller's experiment showed that organic compounds such as amino acids, which are essential to cellular life, could be made easily under the conditions that scientists believed to be present on the early earth.
Mariana’s Trench
deepest part of the ocean in the world
Oparin's Bubble Hypothesis
-Theory of primary abiogenesis
-Called first cell(bubble)-like structures protobionts
group of the same species, living in the same general area, interbreeding freely—that population will always exhibit variation
Summary of Five agents:
Mutations add alleles, gene flow brings in new variations, nonrandom mating is the idea that some organisms reproduce more, genetic drift is random and impacts small populations to a greater extent than larger populations, natural selection is that nature is what’s doing the selecting—that which decides which alleles are best for the current environment
one organism affect one another⬦they work together⬦they evolve together⬦usually because they are closely related.
the intimate living together of two dissimilar organisms in a mutually beneficial relationship
Species concept
what is a species? Traditional definition of species- a group of individuals that are capable of reproducing viable, fertile young. A group of individuals that normally breed with each other.
These things can contribute to the production of new species⬦they also serve as indicators of a new species
oGeographical isolation
oReproduction isolation
oEcological isolation
oBehavioral isolation
oTemporal isolation
oMechanical isolation
oPrevention of gamete fusion
Geographical isolation
extrinsic factor- a means to speciation⬦dangerous if used as evidence⬦two groups are isolated from each other by a geographical feature
Reproduction isolation
intrinsic factor- traits of the species⬦occur within a population⬦these are traits within the population
Ecological isolation
even though the organisms live in the same environment they start to use different resources of that forest and that can have different routes⬦organisms try to reduce competition out in nature.
Behavioral isolation
species have different mating rituals
Temporal isolation
mating or flowering occur during different seasons or at different times of the day
Mechanical isolation
structural differences prevent mating or pollen transfer
Prevention of gamete fusion
gametes fail to attract each other or function poorly
Reproduction Isolating Mechanisms
oHybrid embryos do not develop properly
oHybrid adults do not survive in nature
oHybrid adults are sterile or have reduced fertility

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