# Stats Final 2

## Terms

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- What is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution of a statistic?
- Standard error
- What is the standard deviation?
- The square root of the variance
- When would you use the t test instead of the z-score?
- When scores are transformed using the population standard error of the mean to estimate the standard error of the mean
- Conducting more t-tests...
- ...decreases the reliability of the data
- When would you use a chi-square test?
- When you have a set of expected frequencies and you need to figure out how consistent the observed frequencies are with the null hypothesis
- Two-factor ANOVA is used when...
- ...groups simultaneously belong to more than one classification
- Total df for ANOVA
- N-1
- Within df for ANOVA
- N-p
- Between df for ANOVA
- p-1
- What does p equal?
- The number of groups
- df for Factor 1 in 2 factor ANOVA
- (# of factor 1 levels)-1
- df for interaction 1x2 in 2 factor ANOVA
- (df1)(df2)
- MSb
- SSb/dfb
- MSw
- SSw/dfw
- What is the F ratio represented by?
- MSb/MSw
- What does the F ratio help you find?
- The probability that 2 variance estimates differ from each other only by sampling error
- If there is no treatment effect, what does F equal?
- 1
- A main effect is...
- ...a difference among population means for levels of a factor, ignoring the other factors
- An interaction is...
- ...when the effect on one factor is not the same as the effect on all levels of another factor
- Level =
- df + 1
- Number of groups =
- (# of A levels)(# of B levels)
- Within group variability=
- Within group sum of squares
- Total amount of between group variability =
- SStotal-SSwithin
- Degrees of freedom for Pearson =
- N-2
- r2 represents...
- ...the percent of variance explained by knowing the extent of the treatment
- Spearman Rank-Order Correlation (rs)...
- ...tests relationship between rankings of raters
- For a 95% confidence interval, the z-score is
- 1.96
- Permutations are ________, and combinations are ________.
- ordered, not
- Is an ANOVA test directional or nondirectional?
- Nondirectional
- In ANOVA, what is the null hypothesis?
- The population means are equal to each other and to the grand mean
- What is the alternative hypothesis in ANOVA
- Not Ho
- Total variability =
- Between groups source + Within groups source
- xij
- i participant in j group
- Tj
- total of scores in group j
- n1
- number of participants in 1st group
- What is a mean square similar to?
- variance
- How is a mean square found?
- By dividing SS by its df
- MSbetween reflects...
- treatment effects + error
- MSwithin reflects...
- error
- Ratio scale examples
- Kelvin, height, weight
- Interval scale examples
- Fahrenheit/Celcius
- Ordinal scale examples
- Rankings
- Nominal scale examples
- Make of car
- Ratio scales
- Magnitude, equal intervals, absolute zero
- Interval scales
- Magnitude, equal intervals
- Ordinal scales
- Magnitude
- Which measure of central tendency is sensitive to extreme values?
- Mean
- Range =
- Largest score - Smallest score
- A percentile rank is a _______, while a percentile point is a _______.
- percentage, score