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# Stats Final 2

## Terms

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What is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution of a statistic?
Standard error
What is the standard deviation?
The square root of the variance
When would you use the t test instead of the z-score?
When scores are transformed using the population standard error of the mean to estimate the standard error of the mean
Conducting more t-tests...
...decreases the reliability of the data
When would you use a chi-square test?
When you have a set of expected frequencies and you need to figure out how consistent the observed frequencies are with the null hypothesis
Two-factor ANOVA is used when...
...groups simultaneously belong to more than one classification
Total df for ANOVA
N-1
Within df for ANOVA
N-p
Between df for ANOVA
p-1
What does p equal?
The number of groups
df for Factor 1 in 2 factor ANOVA
(# of factor 1 levels)-1
df for interaction 1x2 in 2 factor ANOVA
(df1)(df2)
MSb
SSb/dfb
MSw
SSw/dfw
What is the F ratio represented by?
MSb/MSw
What does the F ratio help you find?
The probability that 2 variance estimates differ from each other only by sampling error
If there is no treatment effect, what does F equal?
1
A main effect is...
...a difference among population means for levels of a factor, ignoring the other factors
An interaction is...
...when the effect on one factor is not the same as the effect on all levels of another factor
Level =
df + 1
Number of groups =
(# of A levels)(# of B levels)
Within group variability=
Within group sum of squares
Total amount of between group variability =
SStotal-SSwithin
Degrees of freedom for Pearson =
N-2
r2 represents...
...the percent of variance explained by knowing the extent of the treatment
Spearman Rank-Order Correlation (rs)...
...tests relationship between rankings of raters
For a 95% confidence interval, the z-score is
1.96
Permutations are ________, and combinations are ________.
ordered, not
Is an ANOVA test directional or nondirectional?
Nondirectional
In ANOVA, what is the null hypothesis?
The population means are equal to each other and to the grand mean
What is the alternative hypothesis in ANOVA
Not Ho
Total variability =
Between groups source + Within groups source
xij
i participant in j group
Tj
total of scores in group j
n1
number of participants in 1st group
What is a mean square similar to?
variance
How is a mean square found?
By dividing SS by its df
MSbetween reflects...
treatment effects + error
MSwithin reflects...
error
Ratio scale examples
Kelvin, height, weight
Interval scale examples
Fahrenheit/Celcius
Ordinal scale examples
Rankings
Nominal scale examples
Make of car
Ratio scales
Magnitude, equal intervals, absolute zero
Interval scales
Magnitude, equal intervals
Ordinal scales
Magnitude
Which measure of central tendency is sensitive to extreme values?
Mean
Range =
Largest score - Smallest score
A percentile rank is a _______, while a percentile point is a _______.
percentage, score

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