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Immense _____ of genetic variation exist in most species, with as many as tens of thousands of differewnt alleles of each gene simply as a result of the properties and processes of mutation and inheritance
What reveals deleterious genetic variation?
What is one example of a species that managed to overcome inbreeding (perhaps caused by a bottleneck)?
What principle are
p+q=1 and p2+2pg+q2=1 ?
hardy-weinberg equilibrium
What is the ultimate provider of all variation?
Mutuation is ______________ with respect to evolution.
at random
What are three situations where individuals must interbreed with their neighbors?
1. founder effects
2. bottlenecks
3. zoo and conservation projects
what is gene flow?
the mixing of genes between members of the same species. affected by geogaphic separation.
what is natural selection?
nature selecting for any trait that is advantageous to the organism. leads to competition among individuals to survive and reproduce.
The vast majority of selection is trying to do what? what does this account for
eliminate deleterious mutants. the almost uniform genetic code
what is directional selection?
the spread of an advantageous allele throughout a population
What is the red queen hypothesis?
you have to keep running just to stay in place (applied in the humans/bugs arms race, where bugs keep evolving defenses to new toxins)
what is sexual selection?
selection in mating animals of which potential mate will provide the best offspring. males evolved elaborate features from this to compete for the females who do the selecting.
What might lead to the formation of new species from males?
accessory gland proteins incorporated into male semen that influence sperm competition for fertilization
define speciation
a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals
speciation is the basis for?
all evolution since the origin of bacteria
when did plants, animals, and fungi separate?
1 billion years ago
what are the 2 main aspects that control mating behavior? what do they constitute together?
1. species recognition
2. isolating barriers
--> premating isolation
What constitutes post-mating isolation?
adaptations to different habitats, genetic changes that cause the occasionally produced interspecific hybrids to be sterile or inviable
what is allopatric speciation?
two species that were originally the same that evolve in isolation without gene flow that are separate species when they reconnect
what is sympatry?
the genetic divergence of populations occupying the same geographical area
how old is the universe?
14 billion years old
explain breifly the big bang theory
red shift of light from distant ojects implying they are all moving away, the universe will expand forever and finally fade away billions of years from now because of large amounts of dark energy and matter
is life unique? are we?
life is not, we probably are
how old is earth?
4.6 billion years old
how do we determine the age of things?
isotope decay
potassium/argon 40 :1.25 byrs
carbon14: 6000 yrs
uranium 235: 700myrs
when did earliest life start?
what eon?
3bil years ago, achean eons
what are the eons in order and when did they occur?
1.)Archean Eon- beginning to 2.5 bya
2.)Proterozoic Eon- 2.5 - .5 bya
3.)Phanerozoic Eon (Paleozoic Era: 550-250 mya ended with permian extinction, Mesozoic Era: 250-60 mya, ended with cretaceous, Cenozoic Era: 65 mya- on)
when did most animals today evolve?
Pleistocine pediod since 1.5 mya
what chicago scientists tried to prove how life evolved?
Miller and Urey
What do scientists now believe was the first complicated biochemical?
RNA because it can also be catalytic, so could be both a bluepring and an enzyme
what did bacteria develop to lead to the evolution of life? what was biproduct?
photosynthesis, oxygen
When does multicellularity show up in the fossil record?
1 bya
where are the two most plentiful sites for fossils?
the Burgess Shales in british columbia, and Chengjiang in China, all major animal phyla are represented in these places
what were the two major progressions of animal evolution?
greater complexity and terestrialism
what were the two supercontinents that fused to form the one supercontinent Pangea?
gondwana (south) and laurasia (north)
when did dinos appear?
after permian, they were probably warmblooded
what did mammals evolve from? birds?
mammals: therapsids
birds: archosaurs
when did dinos go extinct, what points to this?
Cretaceous extinction, 66mya, asteroid impact, thin iridium layer all over earth
what were the 3 major lines of mammals in the the cretaceous?
monotremes (egg layers), marsupials (pouches), and placentals
how many orders of placentals are there?
80 Mya an offshoot of what moved into the trees evolving what?
insectivores (such as tree shrews), prosimians (descendents today= lemurs, bushbabies, lorises)
when did monkeys evolve, what two types?
50 mya, new world, old world
what is the type of old world monkies? when did they split from new world?
lesser apes, including the gibbons 25 Mya
when did great apes split? what are our closest relatives? how close?
15-20 Mya, chimps, 98-99% identical genome
What are our earliest anscestors? primary species? skeleton? disc where?, what is one evolutionary dead end?
Australopithecus, afarensis, Lucy, ethiopia
A. robustus
Describe the evolution of the homo line, oldest to newest
H. habilis, H. erectus, H. neanderthalis, H. sapiens
what special Homo species has been found? where? when? what happened?
Homo floresiensis, island of Flores in indonesia, lived 100,000 ya to 12,000 ya, probably eliminated by H. sapiens
which four species of humans existed at the same time on this planet?
H. erectus, H. neanderthalis, H. florensis, H. sapiens
How much does each human differ from another? so most evolution has been ______
1 base pair per 1000, cultural
define individual selection
individuals acting selfishly to promote their own survival and reproduction
what is an example of a lower invertebrate working in a colony?
portugese man o war
what are some reasons organisms form social groups?
shared nesting sites, selfish herd, defensive herds, hunting herds
what is parent offspring conflict?
conflict between siblings for parents attention
what are social systems organized by?
dominance hierarchy
what is a eusocial social system?
where not all individuals exist for their own good. some are sterile and exist only to help the colony. ex: termites, bees
What are ants and bees?
what is the study of the behavior of animals in their natural environment called?
who established ethology? (3)
Karl von Frisch (austrian, honey bee studies) Konrad Lorenz (Austrian, young bird studies), Niko Tinbergen (Dutch, natural behavior of many animals)
what is the thesis of many ethologists?
animals have a genetic program that controls the development of their nervous systems
Insect behaviour is ______, they react to _________, and the responses are called ____________
innate, stimuli (or superstimuli), fixed action patterns
define imprinting
animals learn features from their mothers, identifying how to act and what to mate with based on that
what is needed to maintain connections of synapses?
firing, neural pathways are only refined and retained if they are utilized
what does learning involve on a molecular level?
changes at synapses, most critical involve removal or formation of synapses
what is a niche? what are the two types?
entire suite of biotic interactions of members of one species with all others in its usual habitat, fundamental (everywhere it COULD be), realized (everywhere it IS)
define competetive exclusion
two species that require the same resources cannot coesxist in the same niche, so one species will be driven to extinction
species can only coexist in the same niche if they..?
partition the resources
how does resource partitioning go to extremes in insects?
insects specialize to specific parts of the same plant
define mutualism, example
two very different species work together, sometimes for the obligatory survival of each (obligate mutualism.) ex: yucca plant and moth
define commensalism, example
beneficial to once species, no effect on the other. ex: bird roosting in tree
define predation
free-living organism that feeds on other organisms
define parasitism
organism that requires another organism to live, but harms that organism
what are parasitoids?
parasites that actually kill their host
what are some of the things that have evolved from predators adapting to prey and vice versa?
specialized cheetah, cyptic coloration, toxic defense systems, aposematic colorations, mimics
what are primary and secondary successions?
primary: when a species first arrives in an entirely new territory (island)
secondary: when a species replaces other species in an area after an eliminating natural event
what are some invasive exotic species?
kudzu, dutch elm disease, longhorn beetle, H. sapiens
what are the two primary phenomena species must overcome to inhabit islands?
distance (inversely proportional), area affects (size, directly proportional)
define ecosystem
a specific association of a set of organisms living together in a specific place at a specific time, and their physical environment
define biosphere
the sum total of all ecosystems of the world, all the places where organisms can be found
what are producers
organisms that can make compounds from simple inorganic substances; autotrophs (from sun, photoautotrophs, without sun, chemoautotrophs in ocean depths)
what are consumers
heterotrophs, can't make organic compounds from inorganic substances, depend on producers for food
what are the trophic levels?
primary (eat the producers), secondary (carnivores, eat the primary), tertiary (eat the secondary)
what are there in addition to producers and consumers?
detritovores and decomposers, they are also heterotrophs, ingest dead or decomposing things
how much energy do producers get from sun? and then each trophic level after that?
1%, 10%
if we got our energy directly from the sun and were able to use all of the energy it provides us efficiently how much energy would one day of sunlight last for us?
850 days
what are the four major nutrient cycles?
water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
where is most carbon?
oceans (92%), soil (4%), atmosphere and plants (2%)
how much has CO2 increased in the atmosphere? what does it cause? how much it the temp rising per century?
under 300 parts per million to about 350 ppm, causes greenhouse gas effect, .5 degree C per century
define biomes
major growth zones of the planet
what are the four factors that determine biomes?
latitude, ocean currents, altitude, and atmospheric currents
what does latitude affect?
what do atmospheric currents cause?
what exacerbates atmospheric currents?
ocean currents (makes some areas that should be deserts, like the mediteranean, into habitable areas)
how many degrees does temp drop per 1000 feet of altitude?
10 deg F
what are the major continental subdivisions? (6)
neotropical, nearctic, palearctic, oriental, ethiopian, and australasian
how often, since 1850 has the human population been doubling? how many people are there on earth now?
every 75 years, about 6 billion
what pop # and when will humans likely (hopefully) max out? why?
9-10 billion, around 2050, exceed the capacity of our niche
what percent of the world pop are US citizens? how much of worlds resources do we use?
6%, 20%
what are the major ways humans ruin ecosystems and species?
direct killing, pollution, habitat destruction and resource exploitation, import exotic species

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