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Emotional & Personality Developement


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Define Emotion
Feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to them; involves PSYCHOLOGICAL AROUSAL, CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE, BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSION
Define Regulation
Infants gradually develop the ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity and duration of emotional reaction...THIS IS TAUGHT
Types of crying
Most important mechanism for communication
Basic cry
Anger cry
Pain cry
Types Smiling
1-Reflexive smile, does not occur in response to external stimuli (appears in 1st mo)
2-Social smile occurs in response to an exteranl stimulus (appears 2-3 mos)
Stanger anxiety
Fear in presence of stranger (gradually appears between 6-12 mos, peaks at about 9 mo.)
Seperation anxiety
Peaks between 13-15 mos. in US children
Social Referencing
Infant reads emotional "cues" from mom at about 2 yrs old
Emotional Regulation and coping
Crying and anger often require regulation
(from infancy, by 2 they can verbalize)
Self-Soothing stragtegies
3 basic types
classification by Chess and Thomas
1-easy child: 40% of infants
2-Difficult chld: 10%
3-Slow to warm up child: 15%
6 types
Kagan's behavioral inhibition
shyness regarded as "slow to ward up child"
Kagan's behavioral inhibition
1-extremely inhibited,
2-extemely uninhibited and
3-intermediate groups
Rothbart and Batess 3 Classification
1-Positive Affect and approach
2-Negative Affectivity
3-Effortful contol(self-regulation)
Rothbart and Batess Classification, Define
Positive Affect and approach
Kagan's uninhibited children fit this category
Rothbart and Batess Classification, Define
Negative Affectivity
Kagan's inhibited children fit this catergory. This kids are easily distressed, they may fret and cry often
Rothbart and Batess Classification, Define
Effortful contol(self-regulation)
-Infants with high effortful control show ability to keep their arousal from getting too high, they have strategies for soothing
-Infants w/low effortful control are often unable to control their arousal level; they're easier to be agitated, intensely emotional
Personality Development
Trust: infants LEARN to trust when care for in a warm environment
Developing self: By end of 2 yrs old, kids recognize self. Self is not taught or is found and constructed
Independence-by 2, autonomy builds as children master motor and mental abilities developed
Theories of Attachment
4 phases based on Bowlby's
phase 1 (birth to 2 mo): all humans
phase 2 (2-7 mos): focus on one human usually caregiver
phase 3 (7-24 mos): Specific attachment forms, baby actively seeks contact w/caregiver
phase 4 (24 mos and on):Goal directed partnerships are formed. Awereness of others feelings, goals, plans are taken into acct in forming actions.
Strange Situation variations in attachment (Mary Ainsworth)
-Secure attachement
-insecure avoidant babies
-Insecure resistant babies
-insecure disorganized babies
Reciprocal socialization
socialization that is bi-directional.
each person's behavior depends on partners previous behavior
ORactions of the partners are matched, as when one imitates the other
Mutual regulation and scaffolding are important aspects or RS
a form of RS, BUT parent has the control.
Infant experiences turn-taking w/parent
Parent behavior is one where they support childs efforts allowing them to be MORE skillful than before. These children usually are more likely to turn-taking w/peers

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