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Health Care Policy...Test 2


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strategic planning
Formulating, Implementing, and evaluating strategy
strategic intent
Where you want the organization to go
-values, vision, and mission should provide guidance.
strategic thinking
complex, mental processing that selects and synthesizes large amounts of data relevant to the organization
who implements strategy?
top level managers, although mid level managers and low ones are closer to the actual process and can provide valuable imput
12 step strategic management model
1. prioritize values
2. formulate mission and vision
3. Strategic Intent
4. Strategic assessment
5. Strategic Options
6. Strategies
7. Strategic Implementation
8. Performance Assessment
9. Gap Analysis (difference b/t where you are and where youw ant to be)
10. New Strategic Action Plan
11. New Strategic Implementation
12. New Performance Assessment
Strategic Implementation
Making sure agreed upon actions are coordinated and carried out
-requires guidance from goals, objectives, policies and procedures
Plans for dealting with competitors before you encounter them
environmental scanning
investigating varieables that are thought to have an influence on your goal achievement
two aspects of enviornmental scanning
Internal environment
external environment-general and sector
social, political, economic, cultural, technological, aesthetic, consumer, legal, environmental, and sector
Kinds of strategies
Directional- flow from fundamental documents
Adaptative- Where the company's vision quest will take them
Positioning- How the company will seperate it's offerings from its competitors
Operating- how the company implements the strategies
statements of desired ends. Should state specific actions, discern how success is determined, and have timelines
name the characteristics goals should have
S- Specific
M- Measurable
A- Accepted
R- Realistic
T- Timely
Short term goals that help a long term goal be met
set up decision making authority and behavior standards
Establish how policies are activated (How, when, where)
competitive advantage
assets of a company that are difficult to imitate or substitute for by a competitor and have value with a consumer
in terms of service, quality means that the services provide an output with characteristics it is supposed to have
In terms of processes, it means that they do what they are supposed to and produce quality outputs
Meant to lower costs and maintain quality by eliminating variance. It is dependent on data imput, and dependent on the quality of data. Elimination of variance increases quality of the output. It identifies problems and solves them at their root cause.
Something different than what was expected.
2 types of variance
Common Cause Variance- Variance within two st. dev's of the mean, this type of variance is normal and is the result of a combonation of small variances during the process. To eliminate this type, the process needs to be redone

special Cause variance- This type of variance is not normal and is the result of something out of the ordinary affecting the work process. More than two st. dev's away. To change this, the external cause must be addressed.
CQI tools
help identify the root cause of a problem so an appropriate and effective resolution can be planned.
Control Chart
Attempt to determine whether a system is in control (within two st. dev's)
work flow or process chart
Outline the steps taken in a process. Useful in determining where errors are likely and in charting progress.
Cause and effect Diagram
Lists the different things that have an affect on a process or problem. (called a fishbone diagram)
Pareto Chart
identifies which things have the biggest affect on a problem
Scatter DIagram
Show how one variable affects another
Spider Diagram
A graphical representation of many variables
Decision Matrix
A box chart of two or more decisions and two or more outcomes.
----worth of it dependent on worth of imput information
Time Plots
follows events over time
-can be used to determine relationships and to show where lags exist.
Similar to CQI in that it uses information and data to improve the quality of an org's output, but this one is more externally focused. Attempts to emulate the processes of the exemplars in fields
steps of benchmarking
1. Planning
2. Collection and Analyis phase
3. Information sharing phase
4. Action Phase
-you have to identify, understand, and adapt to outstanding practices in the external environment.
benefits of effective staff recruitment and development
Have the right amount of knowledgable staff to get the work done, if you know about your staff and their backrounds, capabilities, you can make more informed managerial decisions, and perforomance expectations will most likely be met with higher job satisfaction
3 categories of employees
What three things should be included in a job description
Minimum qualifications, description of responsibilities, and the relation to others in the organization
work design
everything an organization does to structure and regulate its employees
3 Paramaters of work design
1. Job Specicivity
2. Behavior Formalization
3. Professional Training
Job Specicivity
horizontal specialization- how specific skills are, the scope of the job
More HzS the less scope, more specialized.

vertical specialization- how much autonomy an individual has
More VS, less autonomy
behavior formalization
standardizing the work to maintain quality and increase efficiency
-can do this by work flow, position, or rules.
training manuals, policies, supervision
Profesional Training
The process by which skills are learned
job descriptions
detail decisions made during work design.
employees can't be successful unless.....
they have the specific skills necessary to do should never stop and should begin promptly when hired.
job competencies
required knowledge and skills
Steps for recruitment and hiring
1. Define work to be done
2. Define minimum requirements
3. Define job's relation to others in the organization
4. Put all three into a job description and work with H.R. to get position approved.
5. Interview
6. Get employee off to a good start by training them well
employee turnover
when an employee leaves an organization.....can be terrible on productivity.
top 5 reasons people leave
corporate culture, don't feel appreciated, not given resources needed, not given room to advance, not compensated.
keep employers by:
eliminating org. bariers for sucess, compensate well, reward and recognize generously, give opportunities to advance, have positive staff/management interactions.
A High Performance Org.
1. Develop and maintain a competitive advantage
2. Sets and maintains industry performance standards.
3. has an out of the ordinary financial performance record for a long time
4. Has stakeholders that continually value its services.
-adaptable, flexible, distributed decision making.
Employees of high performance companies should be
flexible, adaptable, do mroe than expected and do it well, realize the dynamic and temporary nature of their jobs, actively support co-workers, self assess
Maslow and Herzberg
psychological- salary
safety- benefits
love- inter personal relationships, supervision
ego- power, recognition
Self actualization- opportunity for advancement
cost containment
Keeping cost down
- in health care, on emethod of doing this is increasing productivity
old thinking on productivity vs. new thinking
Old- productivity depends on standardization of work and on supervision

New- producticity depends on empowering employees to make the right decisions
A system of two or more individuals, engaged in cooperative action, trying to reach some purpose
--people are the key elements, hape vision, values, success
the employees contribution to the organizational goals sought by management

relates to cost of resources used vs. value of output produced
If productivity goes down?
total cost goes up

---very labor resource intensive
work co-ordination
organization of human activity
---must balance division of labor b/t employees and the working together towards a common goal
Three Methods of Work Coordination
1. Standardization- a reduction in the varation in the performance of employees
---processes, output, and skills---reduces need for supervision.
2. Supervision- Having the work of one or more individuals looked after by
3. Mutual Accomodation- ongoing interaction b/t indiciduals, results in continuous adaptation to reach a goal
Three Managment theory models
1. Traditional Model- employees were closely monitored, labor was standardized, employees not given any imput or decision making power, leadership was authoritative and dictated.

2. Human Relations Model- Much more centered on the needs of the employees, based on the Hawthorne relationship-more attention, more productivity, still not alot of decision making power

3. Human Resource model- not only focuses on the needs of employees but encourages them to provide imput and decision making.....recognizes workers want to develop and use their skills
Dissatisfiers- salary, benefits, interpersonal relationships, job security, supervision

Satisfiers, salary, recognition, respect, powere, status, acheivement
continuum of management styles
the span of management roles from dictator to delegator.
contingency model
recognizes that one style is not always used......affected by employees, situation,and manager
life cycle theory
The idea that the management style is impacted most by employee maturity

High support, high direction- coaching
Low Support, Low direction- delegation
High Support, Low direction-supportive
Low Support, High Direction- directing
Steps to Motivate
-Know the work
-outline performance expectations
-make employees understand benefits of meeting performance expectations
-focus on behaviors
-you get what you expect and what you reinforce
- if you want employees to pay attention to you, do it back to them
- let personal pride and a sense of purpose work for you
performance appraisal
comparing an employees performance to the managerial expectations for their job
An Appraisal System should have:
-expectations known to both the employee and the employer
-an accurate and equitable measure of appraisal
- the information necessary to manage and improve performance
job description
duties, capabilities, relationship to others
performance standards
expands jb description by explaining how an org. wants duties performed and how performance will be evaluated
performance goals
measure outcomes and are often specific to an employee
if performance standards are set by employees:
they will be more likely to improve performance
360 degree feedback
feedback that is a culmination of imput from management, peers, subordinates, and self reflection
problems with 360 degree feedback
role- peers might have a hard time with appraisal role
Group performance- despite the use of groups, it is focused on individuals
Measurement- 360 feedback is standardized, and yet many feel individual feedback is most important
Rewards- persona may be too focused on the reward portion and miss the feedback
2 types of rewards tied to appraisals
performance bonus- one time bonus due to meeting performance standards

merit pay- anual increase in salary tied to performance appraisal
performance discrepency
any difference between what is expected and what actually happens

-if negative performance discrepency, corrective action or replacement can occur
Main causes for unacceptable performance by an employee
1. Lack of skill
2. Lack of effort
4. Lack of support
- interactive process used to assess and improve performance
steps of coaching
Identify discrepency

Inform why discrepency is important

Get empl. to agree discrepency exists

Discuss and set improvement strategies

Implement improvement strategy deadlines

Set consequences for not improving

manager must look for improvement
professional and personal development of a protege under the guidance of a more experienced and knowledgable person in a profession
cumulative series of work and non work experiences that continually modify one's knowledge, skill, and perspective
career development
the organizational and personal management of a cumulative series of work experiences that add to one's knowledge, motivation, perspectives, and job performance
direct reports
those who one supervises
why is there a constant need for development and modification of knowledge, skills, and perspectives?
B/C business is dynamic, and b/c old knowledge eventually matures and declines....thus new knowledge must be implemented and grow
ORganizational Career development should focus on
Self Awareness, skills, motivation, knowledge
Training Programs
focus on accreditation and government requirements......such things as as sexual aharasment, diversity, computer programs
Onsite Development
less cost, more attendance, more regulation of content.....however, some might not take person teaching seriously or the person might be uncomfortable taking on a leadership role
Off Site Development
more costly, can decrease performance due to productivity declines, but it generally garners excitement and is a good networking opprtunity.
residency vs. fellowship
residencies are post grad, designed to incr. PT preperation is a defined are of clinical practice

fellowship- fully funed, hardest to get into, funded learning experience in a focused area of PT
why personally manage your development?
1. ready yourself for advancement
2. Make yourself employable in a larger market
3. Autonomy- wider scope than corporate development
4. fulfill membership requirements
making informed guesses about probable and improbable future trends
steps to self career development
1. Do your homework-know customers, potential customers, self
2 Prioritize Values
3. Prepare your approach
4. make plans for your improvement, enhancement, and self assessment
5. Regualrily asses your growth progress and needs
5. Assess steps of this process
6 Make changes in process as needed

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