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bio exam 2 2


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exchange of genetic material by interbreeding between populations of the same species or between individuals in a population
gene flow
all of the genes and their different alleles in a population
gene pool
random change in frequency of alleles in a population over successive generations due to sampling error in the gametes
genetic drift
used to calculate allele frequencies
hardy weinberg equation
balance in relative numbers of alleles that is maintained within a large population
hardy weinberg equilibrium
4 parts of hardy weinberg equilibrium
no natural selection, no migration, no mutation, mating is random
no variation among the members of a popluation, just one form exists
more than one form exists
total number of individuals in a certain species in a certain area
the area a species covers
group of individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
evolution occurs at this level
population level
population geneticists study:
measurement of genetic variation in a population, examines morphological and molecular characters

examination of the mechanisms by which genetic variation changes over space and time
the genotype is to the individual as the____ is to the population
allele frequency
results in a gene pool that is closed to alleles from other species
reproductive isolation
a gene pool consists of all of the alleles that
are present in a population at a given point in time
besides genetics, what else can affect genotypes
in order for environment to cause changes in two species, if species are different, they must
live in different environments
humans have 30000 genes, if 30% have allele frequencies less than one, how many genes have alternative allele?
principles of heredity are important to understanding Darwin's theory of evolution of life by means of natural selection because they show that
genetic variation is preserved between generations
populations of organisms can evolve because they have
genetic variability
in hardy weinberg, q refers to
allele frequency of one allele in population
form of nonrandom mating in which individuals select mates with a similar phenotype to themselves
positive assortative mating
form of nonrandom mating in which individuals select mates with a dissimilar phenotype to selves
negative assortative mating
when an event wipes out part of a population and may change gene frequencies
bottleneck effect
several different combinations of nucleotides may code for the same amino acid
a population is founded by a handful of individuals
founder effect
mating between closely related individuals
evolution on a large scale
ex. emergence of entire new groups
evolution on a small scale
ex. change in allele and genotype frequencies
sudden random change in the genetic material of a cell
male and female gametes derived from same individual
self fertilization
random flucuations of allele and genotype frequencies
genetic drift
works to maintain a dynamic state of balance between advantageous and disadvantageous alleles
balancing selection
favors individuals at one end of phenotypic range
directional selection
favors individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range
diversifying selection
reproductive success
how populations adapt to their environment
natural selection
vary continuously from one extreme to the other
quantitative characters
differences in the secondary sex characteristics
sexual dimorphism
selection of a mate based on a specific heritable trait
sexual selection
favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
stabilizing selection
insures that a given tRNA picks up only its particular amino acid
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a sequence of bases in the mRNA strand
sequence of bases
adds nucleotides to the unwound parent molecule
DNA polymerase
describes how genes can be turned on to synthesize a needed protein or off to stop synthesis of a protein that is no longer needed
gene regulation
unwinds the DNA helix
discontinuous mode of replication exhibited here
lagging strand
smooth continuous process of replication here
leading strand
seals fragments into a continuous strand of dna
single strand of complimentary rna
provides template that will be used for ordering the correct sequence of amino acids
short stretches of dna
okazaki fragments
where replication begins
origin of replication
composed of a team of enzyme proteins that are involved in dna replication
origin of replication
initiates replication
sequence of dna that signals the begining of RNA synthesis
binds to the stop codon to liberate the newly synthesized polypeptide
release factor protein
where dna is unwinding
replication fork
seperates DNA strands and joins the RNA nucleotides along the exposed DNA template
RNA polymerase
combines with proteins to form ribosomes
cellular structures where polypeptides form, consist of large and small subunits
each newly formed molecule of DNA has one strand of old dna and one strand of new dna
semiconservative replication
keep strands seperate while primases initiate replication
single-strand binding proteins
strand of DNA that is copied
template strand
signals end of RNA synthesis
terminator sequence
transciption occurs where
three stages of transcription
initiation, elongation, and termination
first phase of protein synthesis
proteins that bind to starting points to initiate transcription
transcription factors
final phase of protein synthesis
translation occurs where
in this, information contained in rna transcript is translated into a protein
transports amino acids to the growing peptide chain
has an amino acid attachment site for a particular amino acid and an anticodon
biological species concept
can interbreed, produce fertile offspring
morphological species concept
look similar
evolutionary species concept
related in common ancestor
geographically isolated
allopatric speciation
same space, ranges overlap
sympatric speciation
mate at different times of day
temporal isolation
have different behaviors
behavioral isolation
ranges sort of overlap, but not enough
disproportionate growth
allometric growth
timing of events
control placement of body parts
improper placement of body parts
positioning of facial features
hox gene
5 parts of hardy weinberg
mating random, no mutations, pop large, no nat selection, no migrations
only way you can eliminate an allele
genetic drift

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