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Horse Health and Disease Lesson 2


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What is the dental formula for deciduous teeth?
Permanent formula?
3/3 0/0 3/3 0/0 x 2=24
3/3 1/1 3-4/3 3/3 x 2=40-42
What teeth does the horse have?
-canines *only in males
What teeth are on the upper jaw? Lower jaw?
What are wolf teeth?
The first upper premolar with no purpose or function. Often removed if owner wants to, or if discomforting.
What are caps?
Deciduous teeth that are being pushed out by permanent teeth.
What is eruption?
When teeth break through gum line. *Most valuble aging criterion.
How do deciduous teeth compare to permanent teeth?
-well worn (soft)
-constricted neck
How long after eruption does it take for teeth to be "in wear"? What does this mean?
-6 months
-"in wear" means teeth have grown to the point of connecting with their opposite tooth.
What does the occlusal surface look like in young horses? Older horses?
Teeth line up in 1/2 circle in young horses, and are more linear in older horses.
How do the incisors change in direction as a horse ages? (Give 2 directional answers).
-When viewed from side, teeth point outward at a more acute angle.
-When viewd from front, incisors go from diverging outward from midline to converging inward toward midline in older horses.
What is the grinding surface of a horses teeth called?
The occlusal surface.
What 5 situations make aging a horse by teeth difficult?
1) injury or trauma
2) vices (cribbing)
3) individual variation
4) malocclusion
5) bishoping
What is bishoping?
Cosmetic and unethical altering of a horses teeth to make them look younger.
What is cribbing?
Biting onto something and sucking. Teeth get worn down depending on amount of time spent cribbing.
What is an overbite and underbite called?
-parrot mouth
-monkey mouth
What are 6 functions of the skeletal system?
1) give the body form
2) support soft parts
3) protect vital organs
4) store minerals (Ca, Mg, Po4)
5) allow for movement
6) site of blood cell formation
What is the trunk skeleton called and what does it include?
The axial skeleton includes the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone.
What is the limb skeleton called?
appendicular skeleton
What are the 4 classes of bones?
-long bones
-short bones
-flat bones
-irregular bones
What are the 4 parts to a long bone?
1) diaphysis
2) metaphysis
3) physis
4) epiphysis
What is the primary function of long bones?
Leverage. Also aids in support of weight and in locomotion.
What covers the long bone and what does it function in?
The periosteum functions in growth, nutrition, and protection of the bone.
Describe short bones.
They absorb concussions (impacts), are cuboidal in shape, and found primarily in complex joints such as teh carpus and tarsus.
What are flat bones?
Enclose cavities containing vital organs and provide wide areas for muscle attachment.
What bones are irregular?
How many bones does a horse have?
205 bones.
What is the breakdown of bones in the body (skeletal systems and their bone numbers).
vertebral column: 54
ribs: 36
sternum: 1
skull: 34
thoracic limb: 40
pelvic limb: 40
What is a ligament?
A band of tissue that connects bones or supports viscera (soft, internal orgns).
What is a tendon?
A fibrous cord by which a muscle is attached to bone.
What are joints?
The places where two bones meet. Can be moveable or non-moveable.
What covers the ends of bones in moveable joints?
cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
What is synovial fluid?
Honey-like fluid in joints for lubrication and nourishment which bathes the joint and is contained with the synovial membrane.
What makes up the largest tissue mass in the horses body?
the muscular system
What is the definition of muscles?
Highly specialized organs which are characterized by their ability to contact in a definite manner when stimulated.
What are the functions of muscles?
1) locomotion
2) blood flow
3) function in urogenital, respiratory and GI systems
What are the types of muscles?
What is skeletal muscle?
Striated muscles that are voluntary and function with skeletal system for locomotion.
What are smooth muscles?
Non-striated muscles that are involuntary and automatic in contraction. Found in the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and urogenital systems.
How do cardiac muscles work?
Involuntary and automatic in contraction.
How are the muscles in the legs divided?
Start as fleshy muscles in upper leg, but end with only flexor and extensor tendons.
What is the path an air molecule would take in horse respiration?
Nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, then alveoli.
What are the paranasal sinuses?
Air filled spaces lined by mucous membranes which communicate with the nasal cavity. They lessen weight of skull.
What are the parts of the paranasal sinuses?
-conchal sinuses (dorsal, middle, ventral)
-maxillary sinus
-frontal sinus
-sphenopalatine sinus
What is the most important sinus? How is it divided?
The maxillary sinus is divided into rostral and caudal portions by a thin osseous septum.
What can be problematic with molars in terms of the maxillary sinus?
The molars project into this sinus and are only covered by a thin bony plate. If molar is infected, plate with degrade and infection enters sinus. Pus discharge!
What 3 single cartilages make up the larynx? How about the paired cartilage?
1) cricoid cartilage
2) thyroid cartilage
3) epiglottic cartilage
-arytenoid cartilage is paired.
What functionless space is found only in horses?
The guttural pouches.
What are the functions of the larynx?
-control volume of air in respiration
-prevents aspiration of foreign bodies into lungs
-chief organ of vacalization
How large is the guttural pouch? How does it communicate with pharynx?
It is about 300cc and lined with mucous. It communicates through small slit like openings on the lateral walls. *Can be a site of numerous problems such as fungal, bacterial, and tumors.
What happens when a horse is 11 years?
I 3 hooked. Can last through teen years.
Are all sinuses mirror images of one another? Do they connect? If not, where do nasal passageways connect?
Yes, sinuses are duplicates but don't connect until they reach the pharynx.
What is the dark groove in a horses teeth called?
Galvayne's Groove
What is the larynx?
A short tube which connects the pharynx and trachea made up of cartilage, nerves, vessels, and muscles.
When do Galvayne's grooves begin?
Between 9-10 years, the groove appears at I 3 gum margin.
What happens when a horse is 1 week old?
DI 1 erupts
What are the nine body systems in the horse?
1) Skeletal
2) Muscular
3) Respiratory
4) Circulatory
5) Digestive
6) Nervous
7) Endocrine
8) Reproductive
9) Integumentary
What does Galvayne's groove look like at 15 years of age?
The groove extends 1/2 way down tooth.
What does Galvayne's groove look like at 20 years of age?
The groove is entire length of I 3.
What happens when a horse is 1 month old?
DI 2 erupts
What happens when a horse is 8 months?
DI3 erupts
What happens when a horse is 2 years?
all DI present and level
What happens when a horse is 2.5 years?
I 1 erupts
What happens when a horse is 3.5?
I 2 erupts
What happens when a horse is 4 years?
I 2 in wear, canines erupt
What happens when a horse is 4.5
I 3 erupts
What happens when a horse is 5 years?
all Incisors in wear
What happens when a horse is 6 years?
I 1 cup gone
What happens when a horse is 7 years?
I 2 cup gone, I 3 has 7 year hook.
What happens when a horse is 8 years?
I 3 cup gone, 7 year hook gone.
What happens when a horse is 9 years?
I 1 round
What happens when a horse is 10 years old?
I 2 is round

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